Saturday, March 30, 2019

Literature Review: Wireless Sensor Networks

Literature Review piano tuner detector vanesCHAPTER 2To complete this jut, a lot of books reviews puzzle been done. These acknowledge umteen case studies from past to recent research and general netherstanding towards the hypothesis behind each technology. Articles, journals, books, previous pop outs and internet begin served as sources of literature reviews. Some major case studies atomic number 18 run upd below.2.1.1 fictitious character line of tutoriness 1 part study towards re style Integration of RFID into Wireless detector entanglements Architectures, Opportunities and Challenging Problems (2006) 1In this paper, Lei Zhang and Zhi Wang propose trey different forms of meshwork architecture establish on integration of RFID and radio set sensing element communicate, The three architecture are Heterogeneous vane, Distri notwithstandinged reduced functional sensing element reviewer meshing, and Mini pommel network.Heterogeneous network architecture accus toms 802.11b/Wi-Fi technology as its political program. In Physical layer, 802.11b/Wi-Fi spends the unlicensed 2.4 GHZ band and Discrete instalment Spread Spectrum (DSSS) proficiency. Its maximum selective information rate tooshie reach to 11 Mbps. In MAC sub-layer, 802.11b/Wi-Fi uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme, which ordain improve the efficiency of network. This architecture is cheeseparing for real-time operation but limited range.Distributed reduced functional sensor subscriber network architecture uses ZigBee protocol as its platform. The reasons are ZigBee uses lower power consumption in physical layer and MAC layer, more sure and low cost. This architecture is good for wide range but no real-time requirement.The last architecture which is the Mini lymph gland network architecture uses IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee sample protocol as its platform since there is little entropy flow and reduced cost. The mini node is actually t he Mica nodes which accommodate confabulation mingled with each mini node. This architecture is particular(prenominal)ly change course for industrial security and remote condition-establish maintenance dodge, realise 2.1 below describe remote condition-establish maintenance remainss based on the diligence of Mini node network architecture. By victimisation this architecture, the ratifier from the forklift bequeath sense mansion from each mini node and forget move toward the sign onled mini node to perform tasks like move rotating parts of a machine automatically. consider 2.1 Fork lift operation dispatching in a factory 1 baptismal font study 2Case study on paper talented Home Mobile RFID-based net-Of-Things clays and serve well (2008) 2Mohsen Darianian, Martin Peter Michael introduce a RFID lecturer musical arrangement architecture for a class comprised of several indorsers in cut across slave architecture. The communication protocol between the lecturers an d pits is based on RFID standard protocols like ultrahigh absolute frequency. As shown in envision2.2 below, the scheme consists of following endorser components passkey ref (MR), a number of Slave Readers (SR), and Mobile RFID (MRFID) ReaderThe maitre dhotel contributor is a conventional powerful fixed contributor with a institutionalize fixed or radiocommunication connection to the smart home server. It starts the read branch of slave readers and power up supine tags for knowledge process. In addition, this master reader also acts as the so-called RF Energy Generator for alert RFID reader so that the vigorous RFID reader tail end have lower consumption of power.The Slave reader acts as middleware for capturing tag ID information tags which are not admission feeible by the subscribe radio transmittance of the master reader. Slave readers allow for be unified in the home appliances. Since location of the slave readers is known by the system, it is good for lo calization of tagsAs for the Mobile RFID reader, in this paper, it has been improved so that it does not consume a lot of energy. The mobile RFID reader get out use the proposed architecture so-called RF Energy Generator to be try up by master reader or slave reader. Thus, these mobile readers entrust act like passive readers.In this paper, Mohsen Darianian, and Martin Peter Michael have apply the proposed system architecture as described above to occasion a smart home which apply wireless concepts along with RFID technologies for creating work almost e reallywhere in a house. It applications take on reckon galvanizing appliances, home tele- observeing, and give intelligent suggestions privileged the house automatically and wirelessly. bode 2.2 Smart Home using RFID and WSN 2Case study 3Case study on Paper Bus Management governing body victimisation RFID in WSN by Ben Ammar Hatem and Hamam Habib (2009) 3In this paper, intelligent passel tracking application applying int egration of RFID and wireless sensor network technology to monitor whether the bus will be arriving on time, early or late inside the bus send off is introduced.The build approach is proposed. As shown in Figure 2.3, first, each bus will has its own UHF tag. Next, Entrance and give-up the ghost doors will be get out with an RFID reader, antennas and motion sensors. When a bus enters or exits the station, the RFID reader will send its recognition to the central computer where the accompaniment is displayed on a Map. Finally, a software application on the entertain station keeps track of the entrance and the exit of buses and updates the displays related to those buses with useful information. The communication will be wireless using ZigBee protocol.To execute this proposed architecture, they choose to use Ultra High Frequency generation 2 (UHF Gen2) RFID which operates between 860MHz to 960MHz bandwidth. UHF is better suited for reading tag attached to buses. It uses keep go ingscatter technique to go with the tag and provides higher read range compared to HF and LF technology. As for the antenna, they employ Alien circular antenna to read RFID tags to improve penchant of reading. Two antennas are employ in each gate, to communicate with tags. unmatchable is utilize for the emission of energy to the tag and the other receives energy back from the tag. The display is using the LCD and LED technologies.By completing this proposed system, it is desire to provide a smart solution for managing the bus schedule in the bus stations and offering helpful information to passengers. Problems like under employment of buses fleet and long waiting time at the bus station move be minimised.Case study 4Case study on paper Intelligent calling Management System animal on WSN and RFID by Lejiang Guo, Wei Fang, Guoshi Wang and Longsheng Zheng (2010) 4This paper introduces Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) base on RFID and WSN, and discusses the ironware an d software design principles of the system. Figure 2.4 shows the ITS system architecture. It consists of Access and Terminal Layer, Application Processing Layer, and Data storage and access management. The Access and Terminal layer mainly completes information exchange between each subsystem of ITS. Application Processing Layer will be obligated for processing the information. And lastly the Data storage and access management will be the data management system for the ITS system.As for the composition of the system, RFID tags and sensor nodes are used to keep stored in the monitoring area. RFID reader is used for the base station. At the same time, the sensor nodes send the data aft(prenominal) its transfer to the local PC or remote network. RFID quite a little be used for dereliction of duty as an intelligent base station device for RFID and data WSN systems Integration. In the network, the system consists of tailfin types of facilities which are Base Station, demodulator node s, RFID Tags, Device reader and Center Data Platform. Zigbee protocol is utilise in this system architecture. Figure 2.5 show how the sensor nodes are deployed and communicate to each other.As for the data communication middleware, advanced web Service architecture is employ. The reason is web service is the most advanced platform for distributed applications, by which it not hardly can achieve introductory distributed application, but also improve fault tolerance. Messaging middleware is using XML format for the transmission of information. Geographic Information System (GIS) is also combined in the system. GIS is based on one of the technologies supported by Public Security Traffic Management GIS platform. GIS is used to process all information associated with visual processing, to provide simple and direct for visualization information interface.By utilizing the application of ITS based on combination of RFID and WSN. The real-time traffic management system can provides the b asis for efficient data monitoring. Second, the system uses the heterogeneous adaptive network architecture for road monitoring will provide a more flexible way, efficient, reliable system communication architecture for traffics management systemCase study 5Case study on paper Innovative Application of RFID Systems to Special Education Schools by Shu-Hui Yang and Pao-Ann Hsiung (2010) 5In this paper, the uses of RFID system innovatively broaden. Application of innovative Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems has been incorporated to special education school campus to improve the teaching and learning and control process in special education schools.For the Implementation Platform and Architecture, the main RFID campus system was implemented using the YesTurnkey technology, which includes four parts, namely front-end RFID middleware server, front-end RFID application server, backend database server, and backend RFID application server.Front-end RFID Middleware emcee consists of YesTurnkey Asset Tracking Manager which is a manager of all network resources that includes the set of active RFID readers installed on campus and RFID Processor DLL that processes RFID data. Front-end RFID Application Server is a server which used by the Type 1 (Direct-Connected) RFID scenario windows applications. Backend Database Server implemented the Microsoft SQL Server. And finally, Backend RFID Application Server which manages the execution of two kinds of applications which are YesTurnkey WiNOC (Wired/Wireless network Operations Center) Web Application and Type 2 (LAN-Based) RFID Scenario Web Application.However, five of the innovative works are focused, including student temperature monitoring (STM), body burden monitoring (BWM), garbage disposal monitoring (GDM), swabbing course arrangement (MCR), and campus visitor monitoring (CVM) by applying the RFID system technology. raw material operation for mopping course recording (MCR) system will be described below.(Sw ab with the reader is moving across tag)As shown in Figure 2.6, first, they patch up of a mobile pedestal, an artificial plastic floor with embedded passive RFID tags, and a real mop equipped with a Bluetooth passive RFID reader. The mobile pedestal carried a laptop for displaying the real time status of how a student is performing the cleaning job and a projector connected to the laptop, which could project a black, dark grey, light grey or white icon on the artificial floor, which represented dirty, little clean, quite clean, and clean. By using this MCR, teacher can monitor these special education students so that the students will learn to complete their task better.As can be seen, by using this RFID technology, outcomes shown above have truly give benefits not only to teacher but also the student. Research is still ongoing to include RFID technologies in teaching method and materials.Summary of the case studiesTheories behind this projectThis section explains general hypothes is on the technologies involve in this project. The theory and technology involve include Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Radio-frequency identification (RFID), Integration of WSN and RFID and Visual Basic Programming (VB).2.2.1 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)A Wireless Sensor Network is a self-configuring network of niggling sensor nodes communicating among themselves using radio designates, and deployed in quantity to sense, monitor and understand the physical world such as temperature, pressure, humidity and more.Figure 2.7 WSN Sensor Node2.2.1.1 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) TopologyWireless sensor network regional anatomy show how each sensor node inside a wireless network are connected. Some of the WSN topologies are like star, mesh and cluster/tree. They are shown Figure 2.8 below. Basic WSN regional anatomy is the star topology in which each node maintains a single, direct communication path with the gateway. To increase wireless coverage, cluster/tree topology can be used although it increases complexity. Finally, although network latency may be experienced, mesh topology is especially good in increase network reliability. 6Figure 2.8 WSN network topologies2.2.1.2 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) componentsA wireless sensor network may consist of the following components power supply, microcontroller, wireless communication, sensor, local storage, and real time clock systems. Some components may be optional and are depend on the function purpose. The main approximation is that the sensors are connected to a tiny computer that coordinates the measurement, pre-processes, stores and delivers the information.Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) characteristicsThis section describes the behavior or the uniqueness of wireless sensor network. Some of them are harvest or store limited power, open to withstand harsh environmental conditions, able to adapt with node breakdown, nodes mobility, high-voltage network topology, heterogeneity of nodes, large scale of deplo yment, unattended operation, and lastly, node capacitor is scalable and only limited by bandwidth of gateway node.Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) protocolsThere are a lot of wireless sensor network protocols in market nowadays. Some of the well- known WSN protocols are Bluetooth, WiFiZone, IEEE and ZigBee. Choosing the awry(p) protocol may cause severe inefficiency and prevent the WSN to accomplish substance abuser need. The protocol will affect energy dissipation, system cost, Latency and Security. Thus, it is very important to choose the best protocol for a system as it strongly impact on system performance.Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) platformWireless sensor network platform basically include the hardware design, modular design, smart sensor interface, software design, and operating system. The hardware designs include super node, simple node and gateway. All these design have to follow several standardized specification baffleed by IEEE, Internet Engineering Task Force, and In ternational Society of Automation. Modular design has to be flexible and expandable for various applications. Smart sensor interface has to equipped with plug and play modules. Important topics to be considered in software design include security, mobility and middleware which allow communication between software and hardware. And finally, operating system has to be compatible with TinyOS as TinyOS allows easy establishment to wireless sensor network.Radio-frequency identification (RFID)RFID is a means of identifying a person or objective using radio frequency transmission. Mainly, RFID consists of three parts which are reader, tag and also host computer. There are also various types of reader and tags depend on their uses.Figure below show basic operation of a RFID system. First, to read data for tag, tag is move and enter RF field of reader through antenna. Then, RF signal from antenna will power the tag to allow the tag to transmit its ID and data back. Reader will then capture t he data and send them to the computer for displaying.To publish data to the tags, we just bring through the data into the computer, and the reader will take the data from the computer and transmits them into the tag via the antenna.Figure 2.9 Basic Operations of RFID2.2.2.1 RFID readerRFID reader is also called as RFID interrogator and it is used to read/write data from/to tags. It can operate on single or quintuple frequencies, and perform anti-collision processing. There is also a hybrid RFID reader which can read bar code. There are mainly three types of RFID reader which are fixed, hand-held and mobile reader. Each reader has their own uniqueness.RFID reader consists of components like receiver, transmitter, oscillator, controller/processor and input/output port. The receiver holds an amplifier and a demodulator. Transmitter has a modulator and power amplifier. Oscillator is used to provide carrier signal to modulator and a reference signal to demodulator circuits. Then, the controller/processor will perform data processing and communicates with external network. And lastly, input/output port is connected to the antenna. RFID tagRFID tag consists of RFID chip, antenna and power source.RFID chip consists of inflexion circuitry, control circuitry, processor and memory. Modulation circuitry can change the signal from reader to include data to be transmitted back to the reader. Control circuitry control inbred function under the command of processor. Processor interpret signal from reader and control memory storage with retrieval. And memory serves as writable and non-writable data storage.Antenna is only used by Ultra high frequency and Microwave frequency tags. Low frequency and High frequency tags will use induction coils.As for power sources, the tags can be carve up into three types which are active tags, semi-passive tags and passive tags. Active tags have internal power source. Passive tags draw power from reader. And Semi-passive tags are battery-assisted but communicated by drawing power from reader.Integration of WSN and RFIDWireless sensor network (WSN) is used to sense and monitor various parameters in the environment while RFID is used to detect presence, location and identification of objects. By integrating these two technologies, they will provide a significant improvement on monitoring application. The basic idea of integration of WSN with RFID is to connect the RFID reader to an RF transceiver, which has routing function and can forward information to and from other readers wirelessly. RFID will act as a sensor in the WSN. With combination of RFID and WSN, monitoring and tracking application can be done not only outdoor but indoor(prenominal) also (with obstacle). The coverage can also be improved depends on the specification of WSN platform used.Visual Basic Programming (VB)Visual Basic is a programming language and environment developed by Microsoft which is based on the BASIC language. Visual Basic is c ommonly used to develop vivid user interface. Visual Basic was one of the first products to provide a graphical programming environment for developing user interfaces. Since it uses graphical programming environment, we can be sure to increase the efficiency in design the graphical user interface.

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