Thursday, November 28, 2019
An analysis of the short story The Other Two by Edith Wharton. The paper analyzes the plot and characters The Other Two, a short story by author, Edith Wharton. The paper shows the book as an examination of the progressive stages of disillusionment that a man comes to feel toward his wife who is depicted to us in terms that are certainly less than complimentary. Bu,t while ones initial response upon reading this story is to consign Alice to the dustbin of passive, overly-fond-of-convention women, a closer reading must make one reexamine ones own disillusionment with the character. We are never given any hint that Alice in any way changes. What does change is that Waythorn begins to see her calm demeanor not solely as an aspect of her maternal nature (that is, as an aspect of a form of female sexuality that is properly channeled into the production of children within legal marriage) but as an aspect of her sexuality. We will write a custom essay sample on The Other Two or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She has changed, to use the blunt but effective terminology of feminist discourse on the subject, from the virgin to the whore, from the woman whose sexuality is controlled by men to the woman who controls her own sexuality.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Black Heritage in Langston Hughes Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ by Langston Hughes brings together the images of rives in different parts of the world and sheds light on the experiences of people of African Ancestry over the past thousands of years. Rivers are used as a simile to the source of life; the poem traces the movements of blacks from the Euphrates River in Asia, to the Nile and Congo Rivers in African, to the Mississippi River in North America. In this poem Langston Hughes uses imagery and symbolism to express how the black mans soul is connected to the earth and how together man and river tell a story. In the first 3 stanzas the speaker in the poem has Ã¢â¬Å"known riversÃ¢â¬ . The speaker her identifies himself self as Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢veÃ¢â¬ is a person of African Ancestry Ã¢â¬Å"The NegroÃ¢â¬ . The rivers he speaks of are Ã¢â¬Å"rives ancient as the world and the flow of human blood in human veinsÃ¢â¬ . Rivers symbolize the lifeline of the earth and are the sources from which all civilizations sprang. Rives existed before there were human through which blood could flow. The link between ancient and modern humans is the flow of rivers rather than the flow of blood because when human go away rivers still remain. When the speaker implies Ã¢â¬Å"My soul has grown deep like the riversÃ¢â¬ . He identifies himself and the color of his skin with the beginning of mankind. Together these three stanzas predate human existence longer than human memory. River are immortal and human are ephemeral. In stanzas 4-7 the speaker tell the story of the Ã¢â¬Å"ancientÃ¢â¬â¢ rives the speaker mentions in the first three stanzas. The rivers are named in order of their association with black history. In stanza 4 the speakers says Ã¢â¬Å"I bath in the Euphrates when dawns were youngÃ¢â¬ suggesting he was there when human life first begin possibly in biblical terms the Garden of Eden. In Stanza 5 the speaker goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å" I built my hut near the Co... Free Essays on Black Heritage Free Essays on Black Heritage Black Heritage in Langston Hughes Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ by Langston Hughes brings together the images of rives in different parts of the world and sheds light on the experiences of people of African Ancestry over the past thousands of years. Rivers are used as a simile to the source of life; the poem traces the movements of blacks from the Euphrates River in Asia, to the Nile and Congo Rivers in African, to the Mississippi River in North America. In this poem Langston Hughes uses imagery and symbolism to express how the black mans soul is connected to the earth and how together man and river tell a story. In the first 3 stanzas the speaker in the poem has Ã¢â¬Å"known riversÃ¢â¬ . The speaker her identifies himself self as Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢veÃ¢â¬ is a person of African Ancestry Ã¢â¬Å"The NegroÃ¢â¬ . The rivers he speaks of are Ã¢â¬Å"rives ancient as the world and the flow of human blood in human veinsÃ¢â¬ . Rivers symbolize the lifeline of the earth and are the sources from which all civilizations sprang. Rives existed before there were human through which blood could flow. The link between ancient and modern humans is the flow of rivers rather than the flow of blood because when human go away rivers still remain. When the speaker implies Ã¢â¬Å"My soul has grown deep like the riversÃ¢â¬ . He identifies himself and the color of his skin with the beginning of mankind. Together these three stanzas predate human existence longer than human memory. River are immortal and human are ephemeral. In stanzas 4-7 the speaker tell the story of the Ã¢â¬Å"ancientÃ¢â¬â¢ rives the speaker mentions in the first three stanzas. The rivers are named in order of their association with black history. In stanza 4 the speakers says Ã¢â¬Å"I bath in the Euphrates when dawns were youngÃ¢â¬ suggesting he was there when human life first begin possibly in biblical terms the Garden of Eden. In Stanza 5 the speaker goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å" I built my hut near the Co...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Teacher Education in TESOL (Master's Level) - Research Paper Example 19). Teacher development is the development of a sense of the strengths and weaknesses in a teacher so that the increased self-awareness resulting from the process helps the teacher identify better ways to teach others. Training and education are both the means of development of a teacher. How is second language teacher training different from teacher training in other disciplines? Second language teacher training differs from training of teachers in other disciplines in that it imparts a need for the teacher to study and develop compatibility with different cultural factors that drive the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ tendency to learn second language, language being intrinsically and integrally linked with culture whereas training in other subjects is not constrained by cultural differences. Teacher training in other disciplines is primarily about developing the expertise of the teacher in the technical aspects of the subject e.g. lab work training for such subjects as physics and chemistry, an d training of software and programming for the subject of computer. On the contrary, training of teachers in the teaching of second language is more about reaching out to the students both individually and collectively so as to understand the barriers they face in developing their competence in the second language. One aspect of teacher training in the subject of second language teaching could be planning and designing of lecture in such a way that it includes activities and exercises aimed at individually targeting the barriers of students in learning the second language, respecting the time constraints of the lecture. 2. Summary of teacher training history and the main theories on teacher training. The history of teacher training varies from one country to another, yet one common and very favorable improvement that has occurred over the years is increased use of ICT and advanced technology in the teacher training. The training of primary school teachers dates back to the late Vict orian period when it commenced almost by an accident after the Kindergarten school was established in the year 1882 (Randall, 2007). Bedford was familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ choice because of the availability of high quality of education. The Training College was established originally with only five students and continued to remain at the site for more than 70 years. The Bedford students followed Friedrich FroebelÃ¢â¬â¢s progressive model of training. The system gradually became more developed and advanced. Likewise, the only teaching requirements in the colonial period in America were mediocre learning and low pay. Teacher training began during the 1820s and 1830s in academies that were equal to the contemporary secondary schools (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2011). Ã¢â¬ ¦..and the main theories on teacher training. Ethical theories primarily apply in teacher training. Ã¢â¬Å"We believe that some teaching of ethical theory Ã¢â¬â the teaching of the ways we can distinguish right from wrong, good from bad - is necessary in ethics courses, but we suggest a modest, not a major role for theoryÃ¢â¬ (Bowden and Smythe, 2008, p. 23). Since unethical behavior is identifiable, students and teachers can individually assess their actionsÃ¢â¬â¢ rightness or wrongness. Training of the teachers of second language describes the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s notion as a reflective practitioner, that is an individual who reflects on the professional practices with a view to
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Genetic Engineering - Essay Example Also known as gene modification, genetic engineering refers to the manipulation of genes. This technology involves removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into another organism. The removed genes are often put into yeast cells or bacteria to enable scientists study the protein or gene it produces more easily. The technology can be used to find cures to deadly diseases and enable people to live happy lives without being worried about having AIDS or any other deadly diseases. However, genetic engineering can lead to ethical issues such as unfairness, Ã¢â¬Å"Playing GodÃ¢â¬ , or programming a human being. The most significant beneficial impact of genetic engineering is gene therapy. Gene therapy refers to the medical treatment of a disease by fixing or replacing imperfect genes or introducing curative genes to fight the disease. Despite the debate about genetic engineering, the laws in most countries seem to uphold genetic engineering research and development by permitting genetically engineered organisms to be patented. These patents give scientists domination over their genetically engineered species. Regardless, we must not linger and see the impacts genetic engineering will have on the earth. We must form informed opinions, advocate government regulation and anticipate that a whatever path this technology takes us, is an affirmative step towards enhanced environmental sustainability, reduced animal torment, and overall considerate regard for the earth and its valuable life.
Monday, November 18, 2019
Human Resource Management 2 (MASTER) - Essay Example There are some who argue against peternity leave as being a valid HR benefit, however despite these criticisms, there is enough evidence available which illustrates that peternity benefits could be used to reduce turnover and satisfy employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs both psychological and sociological. This report offers considerably more advantages to peternity leave policy implementation than disadvantages. Reward employees for accomplishing organisational objectives, as part of a performance management package, by offering additional peternity leave days-off in the event of future issues with qualifying pets. type of leave in an effort to improve retention and also enhance the public reputation of the company while also satisfying a variety of stakeholder interests. This has made peternity leave a potential topic of interest for improving the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ human resources policies regarding employee benefits. The purpose of this report is to identify the viability of establishing a similar peternity leave policy at the company in an effort to enhance business reputation and employee retention. The impact of establishing such a new benefits policy on total organisational performance is the main focus of this report. The report consulted with a wide variety of case studies and secondary literature in the domain of human resources management and psychology to uncover whether establishing a new peternity policy would be of long-term value to the company. Virgin Mobile Australia has established its own version of peternity leave to include specific criteria for being able to take advantage of this policy. First, it is only available to employees when they are introducing a new puppy or kitten to the family household and the pet must not be older than 10 weeks (Moran, 2009). Additionally, this leave does not apply to rats, fish or other pets such as snakes and iguanas (Moran). It is apparent that Virgin Mobile Australia recognises the
Friday, November 15, 2019
Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites: Literature Review Literature Survey- Based on Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites. 1]Shilpa P.S et al They studied the effect of reinforcement of Boron Carbide with the Al2024. By adopting stir casting technique fabricated the specimen by varying the wt% of Boron Carbide. The specimens are developed as per the ASTM. In the end they come to know that as the reinforcement Boron Carbide increased by wt% increases the Hardness, Tensile strength and Yield strength. The percentage of elongation decreases with the increase of Boron Carbide in the composition. 2]F.Abdi et al-They investigated the effect of 5 wt% of TiB2 as a reinforcement with the Al356.1 metal matrix at various temperature i.e.750c, 850c, 950c using stir casting technique. They found that at temperature 950c shows best result s for Tensile strength and Hardness and the TiB2 particles are homogenously distributed. 3]Sandeep Kumar Ravesh et al(C)-They investigated the effect of the various weight fraction of SiC i.e.2.5%,5%,7.5% and 10% and 5% flyash is reinforced with Aluminium 6061 metal matrix composite by using the stir casting method. They observed that Tensile strength, Harness and Impact strength increased with the increase in weight fraction of SiC particle. A best tensile strength 115 N/mm2, hardness 93RHN and toughness value 7.8 for 10% SiC and 5% flyash reinforced composite material was obtained. 4]K.L.Meena et al(D)-They investigated the mechanical properties of theÃ developed SiC reinforced with Al6063 metal matrix composite material using Melt stirring technique where the experiment was carried out by varying the reinforcement particle size such as 200 mesh, 300 mesh, 400 mesh with the different weight percentage i.e..5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of SiC particle reinforced material. The stirring process was carried out at the speed of 200rpm using the graphite impeller for a period of 15min. A homogenous dispersion of SiC particle in the aluminium matrix was observed. The tensile strength, hardness and yield strength were improved with the enlargement of particulate size and weight percentage of SiC. Percentage reduction area and percentage elongation and impact strength decreases as the increase in reinforced particle size and weight percentage of SiC particle. Maximum hardness (HRB) 83 and impact strength 37.01 Nm was achieved. 5]H.G.Rana et al-They investigated the mechanical properties and wear properties of Al7075 with the reinforcement of Boron Carbide. They concluded that using the using Friction Stir casting the fabricated specimens provides uniform mixing and enhances the tensile strength and hardness. Hence the microstructure are studied with the help of Image analyser. Based on Zirconia as Reinforcement. 6]Ram Narayan et al They investigated the effect of flyash and zirconia with the mechanical properties of Aluminium 6061 alloy composite samples developed by using the technique Stir casting. They developed the specimen by varying the zirconia (5% and 10%) and kept the flyash 10% as a fixed percentage by weight fraction. They observed that due to the presence of flyash and zirconia Hardness and Tensile strength was increased where the elongation decreased as compared to the unreinforced aluminium. The characterization will be done using the scanning the electron microscope machine and image analyser. 7]S. Roseline et al They observed the mechanical properties of aluminium alloy mmc with the reinforcement of fused Zirconia alumina. They developed the specimens by varying by the weight fraction by percentage. They evaluated the mechanical properties which indicates the variations in the Hardness, Tensile strength and Impact strength. The optimum result for mechanical properties found on the reinforcement to be 90 and 10 by weight percentage of the matrix respectively. 8]Jithin Jose et al-They investigated the effect of flyash and zircon (zirconium silicate) with the mechanical properties of Aluminium 7075 alloy and the stir casting technique was adopted to develop the specimens by varying weight percentage .They after conducting the different test concluded that keeping the zircon at a fixed weight percentage and varying the flyash found that the wear rate decreases where the tensile strength and the hardness increases. 9]Adil Ahmed.S et al-They studied the incorporation of Zirconium Nano Particles in Al356.2.The stir casting technique was used for the development of composite specimen where the Al356.2 is heated at around 750c and the Zirconium Nano particles are added .Mechanical properties are increased for 15wt% of reinforcement particle developed at 750c shows homogenous reinforcement particle and through using the Scanning Electron Microscope the microstructure of the specimen shows homogenous reinforcement. 10]J.Jenix Rino et al-They investigated the mechanical properties of Aluminium 6063 alloy composite enhance i.e. strengthened by the addition of alumina particle and zircon sand with an overall reinforcement in the Al6063 material matrix. They observed the Hardness and Tensile strength of the composite having higher value at the composite developed specimen, which having reinforcement mixture of 4wt%ZrSiO4+4wt% Al2O3. 11]K.B. Girisha et al-They studied the effect of various weight fraction of zirconium oxide nanoparticle i.e. 0.5%,1%,1.5% and 2% reinforced with Al356.1 metal matrix composite by using stir casting technique. Here they observed that particle agglomeration in the composite is due to high amount of zirconium oxide nanoparticle. Hardness and wear properties are increased as the increase in weight fraction of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle. 12]M.A.Baghchesara et al They studied the mechanical properties of developed composite specimen using the stir casting method where they considered zircon and TiB2 ceramic particles with size 1 micron and the temperature 750c respectively. The microstructure were studied by using scanning electron microscopy and hence the dispersion of reinforcement as noted. Situation of compounds of the developed specimen were examined by XRD. The end results shows mechanical properties and microstructure behavior of composite was improved compared to the monolithic alloy. Microstructures of the composites in as cast conditions shows uniform distribution of the particles and reveals the better bending in case of zircon reinforced composites compared to the TiB2 composites. But increase in the amount of reinforcement shows better conditions in case of TiB2 reinforced composites. Based On Flyash with Aluminium- 13] H.C. Anilkumar et al-They investigated the mechanical properties of Al 6061 reinforced by flyash. They fabricated the composite specimens using the stir casting method. They developed three sets of composites with particle size of flyash of 4-25,45-50 and 75-100Ã µm was used. The three set of composites are developed by varying weight fraction of 10%, 15% and 20%. The mechanical properties are like Tensile strength, Compressive strength, hardness and Ductility are studied. They found that increase of particle size of flyash decreases tensile strength, compressive strength and hardness of the developed specimens. They also find that by increase of weight fraction of flyash increases compressive strength ultimate tensile strength, hardness but decreases with increase of flyash particle size. 14]Muruganandhan.P et al-They investigated the effect of flyash reinforced with Al6061.By varying the wt% of flyash using the stir casting method the specimens was developed. The found that increase of flyash increase the mechanical properties upto 20% of fly ash in the metal matrix but the corrosion resistance decreases with increase of flyash addition. 15] M.Sankar-They investigated the Silicon carbide and Flyash reinforced with the Aluminium 6061 alloy.They developed the specimens using the stir casting method.They found that as the reinforcement contents increased in the matrix material, the composites hardness also increased. Tensile strength decreased with increased amount of reinforcement.Ã The wear rate of the composites reduced with increased weight percentages of the reinforcements. Who was Responsible for the Cold War? Who was Responsible for the Cold War? When looking at the issue of who was responsible for the cold war, we have to look at what the relationship between the United States and USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was like before the start of World War Two. By the end of the nineteenth century Marxism in Western Europe was becoming more and more national. The imperial implications of both Marxist thought and Russian history provide the broad background and context for understanding soviet involvement in cold war. The soviet worldwide had been shaped by a history that was dramatically different from that of the westÃ Ã . For example the Bolshevik revolution, the civil war, and the experience of World War two all contributed to a unique soviet perspective. Furthermore after the revolution of 1917, soviet Russia assumed the responsibility of spreading the Marxist message. Stalin seen himself as the keeper of the Marxist faith, it would emancipate mankindÃ Ã . In addition historians such as Zubok and Const antine suggest that history gave the Russians the reason to see themselves as saviours of the world. Due to the events that occurred before the Cold War we can see this. Furthermore historians believed that each of them would make his own intricate cold war journey, guided by the two misleading suns of empire and revolution. Many historians believe that it was because, the United States and USSR ideologies were so different and believed that to be the underlying cause for their fear of one another. For example Russia was communist which put the needs of the state ahead of personal human rights and was ruled by a dictator. The USA was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom and believed that communism was something to fear. Americans saw themselves as champions of the free world, and tyrants such as Stalin represented everything the United States opposed. At the same time, the Soviets, who believed that capitalism exploited the masses, saw the United States as the oppressor. To emphasise the difference between the two nations we can see this by looking at their visions of the world. For example Stalin saw the world as divided into two camps: imperialist and capitalist regimes on the one hand, and the Communist and progressive world on the other. In 1947, President Harry Truman also spoke of two diamet rically opposed systems: one free and the other bent on subjugating other nations. Although World War Two was meant to be the War to end all wars it was not, the repercussions and the aftermath of what the war had caused, it just lead to a more apprehensive atmosphere all over the world, and as we can see this was defiantly the case when considering the relationship between the US and USSR. Although relations went on a downward spiral after World War Two it was not always this way, they were once allies during World War Two. However things changed after WW2, once the threat of Hitler was over, they became fearful of each other, Russias hatred for capitalism deepened when they was not rewarded for their efforts during World War Two, instead they became focused back on by the world that they was the threat the red scare began to intensify. Moreover historians have suggested that because of the enormous sacrifice of the Russian people in the Second World War, had led to the soviet lea ders to believe that the allies owed them a great deal. The cold war emerged from the ruins of world war twoÃ Ã Stalin expected to be rewarded for their contribution in the war especially when Russia lost 27 million people. His primary task was to regain the territories lost to Russia during the war and revolution from 1915 to 1921: the Baltics, Finland, Poland, and Bessarabia. This goal was virtually fulfilled by the end of 1945. The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, tension, and conflict short of full-scale war. It was characterized by mutual perceptions of hostile intention between military-political alliances or blocs, both systems believed that they were doing the right thing. The events that happened before and after World War two had an irreversible impact on how both of these countries perceived one another. Furthermore Stalins foreign policies contributed an enormous amount to the tensions of the Cold War. His aim, was to take advantage of the military situation in post-war Europe to strengthen Russian influence, this was perceived to be a threat to the US and everything they stood for. Stalin was highly effective in his goal to gain territory, with victories for example in Poland and Romania. To the western world, this success looked as if it were the beginning of a series of Russian aggressions. The aggressive expansion in Eastern Europe was one of the main reasons for the cause of the cold war. Therefore it can be questioned that if the Soviets had not adopted the expansionist policy, then the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan may not have been initiated to keep Stalin and his spread of communism at bay. Furthermore Stalins own persona could be seen as another cause for the cold war, for example when Ivan Maisky and Maxim Litvinov were appointed in 1943. Maisky wrote that the main soviet goal after the war would be to ensure a durable peace enough for the USSR to become so powerful that no combination of powers in Europe or in Asia could even think of threatening herÃ Ã . This suggest that even though Russia had not got the rewards they was expecting from World War two and the contribution of the west in the civil war in 1918 all contributed to Stalins view on spreading Communism and being strong enough to not be threatened or have a fear of being invaded by any other country. In addition Stalins actions to wanting to spread communism throughout the world, lead to policies such as the china policy which historian Odd Arne Westad came to the conclusion that Joseph Stalin china policy in the fall of 1945 was as aimless and incoherent as his European policy. However much he hoped to avoid post war confrontation with the United States, Stalin could not make his mind how to achieve this aim.Ã Ã This view gives important insight into the impact of Stalins persona on the origins of the cold war. In addition Historians have also wondered whether another cause for the cold war was Stalins poor diplomacy. For example the diplomatic pressure he put on turkey caused him great problems with the west and later in 1948 his attempt his attempt to remove Tito in Yugoslavia by means of communist democracy backfired and only weakened their position. The errors Stalin made and the policies he created showed him to be aggressive and wanting to expand USSRS borders spreading they way of communism. This ultimately created more of a hysteria and fear in US, therefore being a main contributor to the cause of the Cold War. In addition when the Western democracies and the Soviet Union met up to discuss World War II, and the nature of the post-war settlement at conferences in Tehran 1943, Yalta February 1945, and Potsdam July-August 1945. At these conferences the Soviets agreed to allow the nations of Eastern Europe to choose their own governments in free elections. Stalin agreed to the condition only because he believed that these newly liberated nations would see the Soviet Union as their savoir and create their own Communist governments. When they failed to do so, Stalin violated the agreement by wiping out all opposition to communism in these nations and setting up his own governments in Eastern Europe, causing the situation to intensify. To make the situation worse, Stalin deepened the estrangement between the United States and the Soviet Union when he asserted in 1946 that World War II was an unavoidable and inevitable consequence of capitalist imperialism and implied that such a war might reoccur. This resulted in an increase in world spread fear of communism due to Stain basically going towards the thought of another World war, which could have lead to a nuclear war. In addition many of the tensions that existed in the Cold War can be attributed to Stalins policy of Soviet expansion. It is necessary to consider that the role of Stalin can be seen as a catalyst to the Cold War Furthermore the situation involving Poland was that Poland had always been the key state needed from which to launch an attack against Russia. He also wanted Poland to have a pro-Soviet government. Therefore after some time, he set up a communist government in Poland. He said that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks to the west it appeared to them that Russias attitude went against all of the promises that Stalin had made at Yalta mainly that Stalin would permit free elections in the eastern European states. Russia argued that it needed to maintain a sphere of influence in the area for security reasons. This caused further anxiety over Stalins policy of expansion. This then lead to the West to introduce the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, both of which sought to arrest the spread of communism. The initiation of the Marshall plan for European recovery, however from Stalins point of view the marshal plan was a large scale attempt by the United States to gain lasting influence in Europe. The marshell plan was a serious challenge to Stalin vision of a future Europe as well as to German- soviet relations. Thus he had to protect his borders but by doing so it caused him to look like an aggressive bully towards countries that would not follow his lead. For example when leadership of Czechoslovakia hesitated before ending their participation in the Marshall plan it outraged Stalin, he told Czechoslovakia immediately to cancel the plans to receive aid from the US, Gottwald (leader of Czechoslovakia) complied. This just shows the intimidation Stalin was willing to put other nations through to keep them communist and not wade to the side of the US. The nations that complied with Stalin and agreed not to participate in the Marshall plan, their economies deteriorated, while those of th e western European states began to recover and see improvement in their economies. To Stalin this was a challenge of his authority in Eastern Europe, therefore his next actions was to focus on Czechoslovakia, the communist group in Prague carried out a coup in February of 1948. Shortly after the coup the Czech president was replaced by the leader of the Czech communist party, Gottwald. Furthermore it was incidents like these that caused outrage in the western world, the intimidation of another country to not take a chance that could help their economy, to stop them countries from distracting from the way of communism rather than capitalism. Thus if Russia had not behaved and acted this way due to their expansion policy , it may not have ever got out of control and there would have been no need to implement the Marshall plan which lead to the implementation of the Truman Doctrine. To further Americas fear of communism, due to their aggressive foreign policy, between 1943-46 most western European Communist parties were at a peak in the years immediately following World War Two. The French Communist Party, for example, won almost 30% of the vote in 1946 elections. Greece was in crisis they were at the brink of civil war which finally occurred in 1946 after the Greek communists tried to seize power in 1944 due to a rise in communist leg guerrillas. This resulted in an economic crisis which at the time was being supported by Britain however this was no longer possible. Therefore America stepped in because they feared that the people would look more towards communism through desperation. This then resulted in the introduction of the Truman Doctrine in March, 1947. The Truman doctrine announced that was to be given to Greece and Turkey in the stated context of a general war against communism. The US gives $400 million as aid to help Greece in their economic crisis. However it can be said that in many ways, the Truman Doctrine marked the formal declaration of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union .It also solidified the United States position regarding containment. However, even though this suggests that US started the war, but if Russia had not been aggressively expanding their empire and spreading communism then it would not have caused the US to intervene and introduce the Truman doctrine due to their fear of communism. By 1946, the United States and Britain were making every effort to unify all of Germany under western rule. The Soviet Union responded by consolidating its grip on Europe by creating satellite states in 1946 and 1947. One by one, communist governments, loyal to Moscow, were set up in Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. Stalin used Soviet communism to dominate half of Europe. This created more of a mistrust in the USSR and the US relations resulting in the build up to the Cold War, and evidently showing that the roots of the problem was the Russias expansion policy. In relation to the previous point made to show Russias expansion during the time leading up to the Cold war, we have to look at Winston Churchill Iron Curtain. Churchill said that From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and Eastern Europe -Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia.Ã Ã Therefore showing the scale of how fast Russia was expanding through Eastern Europe. It also emphasis the split between Russia and the US creating more of an estranged relationship between the two super powers, because it is showing the spread of communism and how quick it was occurring. The United States feared the most was the Red Scare which was becoming more serious with each invasion of the countries within Eastern Europe. Stalin also set up the Berlin Blockade with the idea that he could push western power out of Eastern Berlin, which only escalated the situation. The cold War was the brave and essential response of free men to Communist aggression.Ã Ã Schlesinger believes that the soviets were wrong and that the USA was trying to stop the USSR from going any further. Another view is T.A. Bailey who also believed that the Soviets were to blame; he thinks that they always had one more plan for world domination up their sleeves. In addition further actions took by Stalin which was contributing to the end result in being the cold war, was the Berlin Blockade on the 24th June 1948. Stalin decided to blockade West Berlin by cutting off road and rail links. To break the blockade armed forces would have to smash the blockade, however this would be seen as an act of war which Stalin new US wouldnt do. He believed they would abandon their zones and leave the whole of Berlin in soviet hands. However Stalin failed to gain control of Berlin. Although he failed in this case, it still antagonised America causing them to retaliate. Therefore due to Stalin wanting to gain a foot hold in Europe and to keep aggressively expanding. This shows that each action Stalin made were all catalysts in causing the Cold War. In addition the relationship between Russia and the US escalated further to the extent were another proxy war was occurring, which was the Korean War (1950- 1953). The Korean War was a military conflict between the Republic of Korea, supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea and Peoples Republic of China (PRC), with air support from the Soviet Union. The war began on 25 June 1950 it was a result of the political division of Korea by agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War. In 1945, following the surrender of Japan, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th Parallel, with United States troops, occupying the southern part and Soviet troops occupying the northern part. It was soviets foreign policy that lead to them being involved in the Korean War however it was China who physically participated in the war, where as Russia was acting behind the scenes to not actually cause a physical war between them and the US. By being involved in the war it just caused the US to be more wary of Russia and showed how much influence and power the USSR had gained to have that control over China and other countries that were also communist. After looking at the events leading up to the cold war, the short term and long term causes when focusing on the US perspective we see that their view was flawed because they feared what they did not understand, they did not understand how a country could be ran under a communist government and still work, especially when the US system was capitalist. The USs response was based on their misunderstanding and fear of USSR which was more commonly known as the red scare. For example the US and Britain believed that just before WW2 they seen the USSR as more of a threat than Hitler at that time. Overall some historians such as the Traditionalist believed that Russia was to blame for the Cold War. They believed that the Soviet-led governments sought to overthrow existing capitalist governments, which can be reinforced by the fact that Russias foreign policy was aggressive expansion. In addition the US and its allies were merely responding to the threats of the Soviet Union, as we can see by the Truman doctrine. I agree with traditionalists idea due to the fact that Stalin and his successors were convinced that the legitimacy of their rule depended on validating Marxist-Leninist predictions of world revolution. If they believed that they would only succeed when these predictions were completed then they were to blame for the cold war. Russia actions of aggressive expansion throughout Eastern Europe support this.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Cognitive Dissonance Theory by John L. Cotton When I hear Cognitive Dissonance, I say to myself, "Cogna Who?" I could barely say the word let alone be able to explain the theory to someone else who has never heard of it. So I took it upon myself to get schooled up on the Cognitive Dissonance Theory. Doing this was no barrel of laughs. But one night while I was sitting by the fire having some wine and cheese I was reading Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, there was an article by John L. Cotton that explained the Cognitive Dissonance Theory. To my surprise the article which was named "Cognitive Dissonance in Selective Exposure." After reading the article several times so that I would not miss a single bit of information, I think I have a clear understanding of Cognitive Dissonance. Now for all that know me, I would never keep this information to myself, but I am going to share Cognitive Dissonance with all you web surfers out there. Are you ready? Well, ready or not get ready to set sail and ride into the world of Cognit ive Dissonance! Research Probably the best quote that Cotton gave was that everyone "selectively seek, choose, and screen the information that we use." How true is this in your day to day lives? Think about it, we are constantly making decisions that we think that are beneficial to us and the people around us. For instance, if all of the boys want to got to the bar and have a few smoothies, you are more inclined to go along with everyone else because you do not want to ruffle anyone's feathers. Let us dig a little deeper into this theory and break it down. First off, what is cognition? I was not too sure either until the article explained what cognition was. Cognitions are "attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about one's behavior, or any other knowledge about oneself or the environment." So basically all of our actions and feelings that we have are cognitions. Understand the cognitive part of it a little better? Do not worry we will be back to explain this further. How about we tackle the dissonance part of th is theory and see where we can go with it. Dissonance is the concept that when a person becomes "aware that two or more of these cognition's are contradictory, dissonance is created.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Google was founded in 1999 and has been around in your everyday life ever since. Ranging from search engines to books to email, Google is somehow incorporated in your lives everyday. Originally beginning with their focus on search engines and algorithms, Google has since widened their availability of products. In 1999, when Google first came about, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission was: GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to organize the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s information and make it universally accessible and useful. 15 years later, this is still the mission of the company. According to the article, it will take upwards of 300 years to obtain and organize all of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s information. That being said, it is safe to say Google has a long way to go but are they headed in the right direction? Google, just like any other company has goals and objectives. Some of their goals include: Growth Develop and maintain the Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ search engine Provide innovative products early and often To organize information and make the web faster and better for everyone (These will be discussed in strategies and throughout the case analysis) Strategies Google is no different from Burger King or from LA Fitness. All companies share a same goal, regardless of the industry they are in: market share and growth. GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s main goal is to continuously grow and dominate the market/industry and be a leader for years to come. Upon entering the market in 1999, Yahoo and AOL were some of leaders in the industry. Google immediately changed that by becoming working at becoming a player in the industry. As of 2009, Google had 65.6% share of all US searches and 90% of all international searches. Meanwhile, the closest rival (yahoo) had onlyÃ 17.5%. Since the very beginning, Google came about to change search engines everywhere. They wanted to offer a faster search engine that provided more relevant results, incorporating history of search, keyword frequency, and important pages. Thus began the creation of paid listings. At the very beginning, paid listings were advertisements all around the page: top, bottom and in the margins. Additionally, cost per click (CPC) came about as well. Advertisers began to pay for clicked links by consumers to compete for position on search results pages. The higher their link was on the results page, the more likely it would be clicked. Google changed this aspect into a cost per impression, meaning if the ad is viewed and nothing clicked, then the client is still charged a fee. Google also developed a CPC rate based on actual clicks to expected clicks forecasted by Google themselves. In 2003, Google began advertising editorial content along with blogs, something that had not been done by any competitor yet. AOL ended up giving Google the rights to advertise on their website costing Google $1 billion and giving AOL $330 million advertising credit. Over the years Google has encountered many rivals and competitors ranging from Yahoo and Bing to Ebay and Amazon. These rivals came about due to the innovative products created at Google. Google purchased companies such as YouTube, DoubleClick and Channel Intelligence while coming up with products such as cloud applications, Google Docs, Gmail, Google Finance and so much more. Google was leaving their main focus of search engines and dabbled into other categories in the industry. To some, this could be seen as dangerous and deadly to the company itself. Not for Google, anything they touched turned into gold. Google Docs immediately challenged Microsoft Office while Gmail challenged any and all free email websites. Google has also come out with tablets and mobile phones of late, allowing them to compete in yet another industry. Some might ask what is so appealing about all of their products? In my personal experience, I would say the ease of use is what appeals to me. Anytime I have used a product of Google, it is so easy to use and has lots of capabilities. Some might see this ease of use as a competitive advantage. When it all comes down to it, developing the Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ search engine is their main focus. Google has a philosophy that says, Ã¢â¬Å"Do one thing really, really well.Ã¢â¬ That is why the main focus of the company is developing the perfect search engine and organizing the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s information.Ã Through paid as well as free listings, Google has developed a faster and more accurate way to sort search results. This will continue to be their focus in the future and Google hopes to master the art of the search engine. Google Culture and Values During its existence, Google has proven to be loyal to a certain set of values, principles and culture. In my opinion, this can be swayed as part of their business strategy as well. As part of there culture, they make these three things consistently known: 1. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be evilÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Do not compromise the integrity of search, effective advertising without being flashy, and do not allow ads on webpages that have no relevance. At Google they have a firm set of beliefs and this is an important one. Google makes sure to do things the right way and follow their moral and ethic code. They do not take advantage of publishers, clients or the customers. Google is here to provide a service as well as products and they do so in an honest way. 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Technology MattersÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Technology rules everything. Developing a faster and more accurate search query could only be done so through new and advancing technology. Google developed custom hardware to decrease costs a nd improve speed. 3. Ã¢â¬Å"We make our own rulesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â The founders at Google ran the company in a different and unconventional way. They were very secretive to outsiders, only unveiling things that they were required to and nothing more. This leads into their unconventional governance structure as well. Governance at Google was an interesting situation when it came to the IPO. They decided to offer dual class equity, giving 10 votes per share of Class B and Class A receives 1 vote per share. Assuming that majority of people will sell their shares anyways; that left the CEO Schmidt and the founders, Brin and Page, with 80% control of the vote. This allowed them to control the strategy and direction of the company. They made it very well known the direction the company was headed in and that anyone who invests is not only investing in Google, but the idea and direction that Brin, Page and Schmidt want to go in. 4. Ã¢â¬Å"Do one thing really, really wellÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â This is basically a quote that Google has and will always live by. When Google first came about, the main focus of the company was providing a better search engine than what already existed. Google created algorithms that allowed forÃ quicker and more relevant search results. Between these algorithms and the deals Google scored with companies, they quickly jumped into majority market share. To this day, Google still acquires companies and has deals with clients to continuously improve search quality on and day-to-day basis. Do not expect this to ever change. There are other points that Google lives by but these four are the most important and outline their every decision, their every move. Situation Analysis SWOT Strengths 1. Brand Recognition Ã¢â¬â Everyone knows and has heard of Google. People have begun to use the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name as not only a proper noun but also a verb, Ã¢â¬Å"Googled it or Googling itÃ¢â¬ . To be so popular not just in the form of a search engine, but with all the products offered, that is a huge strength. Reputation is everything. 2. Acquisitions Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t beat them, join themÃ¢â¬ . That is a popular quote heard from time to time. Google has dominated the market since entry in 1999 and lots of companies have fallen to this quote. Google acquires competitors (current and possible future) from time to time, such as YouTube, DoubleClick and Channel Intelligence. This increases their reach towards possible new target markets, increasing revenue and profit. Most importantly, it increases market share. As a company absorbs competition, one would assume their market share becomes absorbed as well. 3. Algorithms Ã¢â¬â Google created an algorithm to link pages together that deserved attention. This allowed for faster and more relevant search results leading to Google becoming a true threat to competitors. Irrelevant results always swamped and spammed customers. Google found a way to trim this down and it also became a competitive advantage. 4. Free Services Ã¢â¬â Google offered free software to optimize advertising campaigns. Google Analytics allows companies to focus spending on specific keywords that are more popular so they are more likely to lead to sales. Weaknesses 1. Variety of products Ã¢â¬â I very well could have considered this one of their strengths as well. I firmly believe when Google came about, their main focus was to improve the quality of the search engine. Since then, Google has developed a wide variety of products ranging from books, email and videos all the way to mobile phones, operating software and Google docs. Offering a myriad of products and services can cause a company to lose their main focus. 2. Legal issues Ã¢â¬â Google seems to not be bothered by their legal issues. From copyright infringement (books) to searches by trademarks, Google has faced legal issues throughout their existence. There was a class action lawsuit in which Google ended up settling for $45 million with book authors/publishers for copyright infringement. In addition to that, placing competitor ads when a company is searched did not sit well with companies such as Geico or American Airlines. It created customer confusion and led to possible loss in sales for the clients of Google. These suits were also confidentially settled. 3. International Reputation- These legal issues were not solely domestic. Litigation for companies overseas ended in a different result, with the courts siding with multiple trademark holders rather than Google. Book scanning was resolved domestically as well but the results were opposite once again overseas. It seems as though Google has a poor reputation as a result of these legal issues overseas. Opportunities 1. Mobile Devices Ã¢â¬â Google has created an Android phone that is currently competing with top market mobile devices. They also have come up with Google Glass and tablets. There are more opportunities in this industry and large room for improvement on their existing products. Apple may dominate this part of the industry but it is not farfetched to think a company like Google cannot deplete AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s market share. 2. Full Service Portal Ã¢â¬â Yahoo currently offers a full service portal inclusive of sports, finance, email, calendar, tasks, etc. Google already individually offers some of these products. Maybe getting into the idea of a full service portal could be their next step? 3. Improving existing products Ã¢â¬â After initial releases of products, Google can weigh the popularity and success of each product. TheyÃ will know what is failing, what interests society and what they can/should improve on. Innovation is not only creating new products but also improving existing ones. 4. Advancing Technology Ã¢â¬â Google has acquired many companies throughout their existence, which allowed them to use new and uncharted technology. There is always new technology and Google is a multibillion-dollar company allowing them the possibility of purchasing if not creating this technology themselves. Adapting to new technology allows Google to gain an advantage over others in the industry Threats 1. Replacement Advertising Ã¢â¬â Google began advertising on search pages. Since the start of web advertising, we have come a long way. Now there are mobile phone apps that include advertising as well as social media sites. This could begin to threaten the market share and revenue of Google 2. Privacy Laws Ã¢â¬â As we know, Google is no stranger to legal issues. Privacy has begun to threaten Google in many different forms. One common for was through Gmail. Advertisements were chosen based on what the email said but no one was actually looking; there was simply an algorithm in place to extract that information and process it. The search history can be accessed and people think this invades their privacy as well. Your search history is available for up to 18 months. 3. Substitution- With the variety of products offered, each one has one or more competitors. If legal issues continue to rise or prices become too high, it is possible that customers switch from Google to their competitors. The threat of substitution is high in the sense of products other than search. Some would say they do not see a difference between Yahoo, Google and Bing BUT this is not a threat because as of 2009, Google had 65.6% of all US searches. If there is no difference, then where is the threat of this number to decrease? Why would anyone switch from the current search engine that they use? Competitive Advantage and Resources Resources and competitive advantages seem to go hand in hand here at Google. A key resource is the employees. Google has approximately 48,000 employees; this calls for a wide variety of knowledge and talent. Each employee bringsÃ something different to the table. Google stresses individualism and personal projects. If 48,000 people are striving to improve the company and create new possibilities, that would make employees a phenomenal resource. Another resource is their algorithms. As I have stated throughout this discussion, Google created algorithms to create a faster, more dependable and relevant search engine. Developing these algorithms allowed them to sustain a competitive advantage. In fact, some competitors even wanted to purchase the use of these on their engines (Yahoo and AOL)! Instead, Google went ahead and created a search engine becoming a direct competitor. Another resource, which might actually seem odd, is the founders and CEO of the company. They run Google in an unconventional way but it has really paid off. They developed a set of values and pounded this culture into all heads at Google. Technology is another resource used at Google. Technology in general is always changing and people constantly have to adapt. Google is a driver of technology and constantly brings products to the market. Google uses technology to succeed as well as incur a profit. The above resources can also be considered competitive advantages for Google. The algorithm that was created set Google apart from competitors and allowed them to enter the market. They immediately began obtaining market share and competitors could not compete with that type of search engine. Brand recognition is another competitive advantage. If people were to give me the option to use Bing, Yahoo or Google, I would hands down always use Google. Not that I can tell a difference but simply because I am accustomed to it. It is well known and developed in so many facets of the industry. Another competitive advantage that Google has is its free software. The competitors cannot afford to offer free services to clients, which gives Google a leg up on the competition. It allows Google to tap into new markets, further tap into current markets and please current clients. Data scraping abilities (which I have direct contact with) is another competitive advantage. The data scraping capabilitie s at Google are unbelievable. The resources they have here allow them to analyze every bit of data possible. This leads to better and more accurate services for clients, enhanced keywords, and an enhanced overall experience for clients. Porters 5 Forces Threat of new entrants Ã¢â¬â Some would consider this high but I think it varies depending on which segment you are discussing. In the search engine segment, I would say the threat is low but when you look at the multitude of products offered elsewhere, there is always a high threat. Costs to enter could be high in some segments while low in others. While profits are attractive and could result in new companies entering the market, Google as a dominant firm can turn these potential threats away. Threat of Substitutes Ã¢â¬â This has the same basis as threat of new entrants. Depending on the product, the threat could be high or low. Cell phones and tablets have a ton of possible substitutes out there and that can cause customers to switch brands. Varying prices of products or differences in quality can cause a high threat of substitution as well. Rivalry- High. There are rivals in every segment of GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Search engine has Yahoo as its biggest competitor but not limited to just them. There is also Bing, AOL, and other small competitors. The existence of innovation and new products keeps the rivalry intense amongst competitors in the industry. Similar products and similar goals keep the rivalry constant Bargaining power of suppliers Ã¢â¬â Low. The main suppliers of Google are engineers. Due to the number of engineers, the supplier has low bargaining power. Google has 48,000 employees and if engineers feel they can do better elsewhere, then Google will find replacements. Being such a large and successful company almost has Google on a pedestal. Who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t jump at the opportunity to work for them? Bargaining power of consumers Ã¢â¬â Also varies based on what product is being discussed. When you discuss tangible products such as mobile phones or tablets, power is high. When it comes to search engines, Google Docs, Gmail, etc, power is low. Although there are other substitutes to these items listed above, the interface and software of Google sets it apart fromÃ the rest. The threat of switching is non-existent. Critical Success Factors Ã¢â¬â these are factors that are necessary for a company to achieve its mission. For Google, the following are CSF: Speed and accuracy- The faster results can be displayed with accuracy then the more likely that people will use Google. This is how Google set themselves apart from the industry. New algorithms allowed for more relevant results at a quicker pace. Quality search results Ã¢â¬â As I stated above, the algorithm allowed for relevant results. People were being spammed by random links not relevant to what they were looking for. Innovation- Google is constantly bringing products to the market and attracting new target markets. Not only are they bringing new products to light, they are changing and improving existing products Culture Ã¢â¬â This is a CSF for Google because it sets them apart from competitors. Google stands by their beliefs and their culture 100%. They do not deter from these beliefs regardless of the situation. It allows them to think outside the box and differently than competitors Ease of use Ã¢â¬â Older generations are not completely acquainted with the use of technology and probably never will be. The ease of use could help close that gap tremendously and allow for Google to tap another market. The multitude of products, software, hardware or tangible products need to be easy to use. Even my generation has trouble with software and hardware, it is like a second language to some! Alternatives and Recommendations A few possible alternatives that Google can do are become a full access portal, increase personal time to 20% (making it a 60-20-20 system) and focus on improving existing products. Becoming a full access portal will allow Google to take some additional market share from Yahoo. Currently Yahoo offers finance, sports, mail, news, etc. all in one place. Google needs to put this into action. The pros of this are that Google already has these things but offers them separately. Google has the Gmail option, finance, news, maps, books and much more. It already has the pieces and just needs to combine them intoÃ one place. This should not be hard with all the talented engineers on staff. Another pro is that the market share is bound to increase. Google already has many loyal customers to different segments of the market. Some might use Yahoo for things not currently offered in the same place. If Google offers sports where it has email and finance (for example), it could take away customers from Yahoo. A con is that this is a big risk. If the interface is not easy to understand or follow, people might abandon these options altogether and go directly to a competitor. Increasing personal time spent on projects to 20%, changing the culture to a 60-20-20. Currently Google encourages personal projects and stresses to work on a 70-20-10 basis. Google says they do not mind spending money now if it can lead to possible wealth over time. For this idea, there are a few cons. Employees could get caught up in their personal ideas and projects leaving the important ones assigned by managers past due. This could also be seen as free time and some might take advantage of it as a break from work in general. Another con is if 48,000 employees are working on their own projects 20% of the time, it might not be time well spent amongst everyone. Even if everyone is working diligently on a project, these projects might not pan out and that is a lot of wasted time. One of the biggest pros is high risk, h igh reward. Google is willing to take a risk after evaluating projects developed by employees. Allowing them to work on personal projects 20% of the time can create more opportunities to Ã¢â¬Å"hit bigÃ¢â¬ for Google. Another pro is the encouragement of creativity. Personal projects call for creativity and this can then transfer over into the 60-20 time spent elsewhere. My last suggestion is to focus on existing products rather than continue to increase the amount of products they have already. Google came about and was focused on search but since then have brought multiple products to the forefront of the market. While they have been mostly successful, existing products can still be tweaked to gain maximum exposure. The main pro of this suggestion is that the kinks and problems existing could be resolved. Google could perfect already popular and existing products with the possibility of taking demand from competitors. Another pro is redirecting their focus back to the original product and the main source of revenue. Search was the first product of Google and even today it makes up the majority of the revenues (including advertising since they are hand in hand). Some cons are that they could be missing out on the next big thing. Putting all focus on existing products might have Google miss out on a hot new product that could really bring a big boom to the company. Another con is there might not be much more additional potential to focusing on existing products. They have acquired companies and competitors throughout their time and this is one way to focus on existing products. Another recommendation is pretty simple and quick to the point. Get rid of products that do not have high value to the company. The scope of the product line is wide and I do not think it is possible that all are value-adding products to Google. While some might be reaching large audiences and bringing high profits to the company, there are always some that are not doing so well. While they still might be making a profit, the workforce could be used elsewhere and that might have a higher value than the non-core product. Resources and time could be used elsewhere to perfect other products or to create new and innovative ones. The con is that while it might not be adding Ã¢â¬Å"valueÃ¢â¬ , the product is still bringing in a profit. Google is very successful and would not have a product existing that currently has costs outweighing benefits. They are too smart for that. Giving up on a product might not be the correct decision just because it is not bringing in expected amounts of money. My recommendation would be to combine the 60-20-20 option with the focus on existing products option. While the 60-20-20 idea can cause a lack of focus, intertwining it with the existing products idea allows that focus to still be there. Employees can incorporate work on existing products in that additional 10% of time as well. Allowing companies to work privately on anything could prove to be a bad idea but pairing it with existing products will benefit the company. Imagine 48,000 employees focusing on existing products. The sky is the limit and Google can really blow competitors out of the water. I decided the full service portal is not a good suggestion. The risk of it not being easy to access and maneuver around does not outweigh the benefits. Customers already use a variety of products regardless if they are all in one location. If putting theses product in one place backfires due to difficulty of use, customers may go to Yahoo and begin using their portal. Google already has a sense of customer loyalty soÃ why try and change something that is working. Implementation The recommendation at hand here is to increase personal time to 20%, making the culture at Google 60-20-20 while maintaining focus on existing products. To begin this recommendation, Google should select a percentage of employees to test this out. Of 48,000 employees, they cannot have everyone working on personal projects right off the bat. It might lead to laziness and lack of effort across the board. Google should select maybe 5% of the workforce and allow them to allocate additional time towards personal projects. Google can then compare it to prior months focus on core business and see if they still maintained focus. If this was successful, then little by little introduce the workforce to this new concept. Another part of this implementation would be to have different shifts. Everyone cannot work on personal projects at the same time. Setting aside different shifts for the personal time could prove pivotal to the success of this idea. Google likes the idea of these creative concepts and have used them before. Gmail is an example of the Ã¢â¬Å"personal projectÃ¢â¬ and now that has flourished into a leading email in the industry. Google has no problem investing in long shots and extending to 20% would do just that. Another part of the recommendation was to put focus on existing products and tweak or perfect them. To begin implementation, analysts at Google need to perform an industry analysis and provide some data on the competitors that exist with similar products. Google needs to have numbers and data comparisons so that they know how their products are doing in comparison to possible substitutes. After analyzing the industry, Google would send out customer surveys. All customers are in a database and have their emails, addresses, phone numbers, etc. on file. Google will find a way to reach the customer, send them a short survey on what they like, what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like, what needs improvement and other beneficial questions. To figure out what needs improvement, you MUST talk to the users of the product. Upon finding out what is liked, what needs fixing, Google must assign a task force to tackle the job. This can now be intertwined with the 60-20-20 change stated above. While it may be a core business task, the idea of how to fix a problem or tweak a product canÃ be completed during the 20% personal time. Once the task force has been assigned, the product will be evaluated by everyone on the task force. They will be encouraged to give blunt honest opinions on the product as well. These employees are more knowledgeable than the everyday user so they might have different ideas that could be acknowledged as well. Once the survey period has ended for both customers and employees, brainstorming must begin. Individualism is encouraged but working in teams can help brainstorming run more smoothly. Ideas will be bounced around and once they can settle on what needs to be done, the Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ part takes place. Strategies on changing, marketing, and promoting the new product need to be derived and approved by managers. Once the strategies are derived, products will begin to go through the makeover process. Throughout this makeover process, Google will begin marketing and promoting the changes that are coming. The public will become aware, arousing curiosity as to what Google did to make this amazing product even better. This will lead to some hype and Google, like usual, will please the customers and the public. GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to organize the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s information and make it universally accessible and useful. They have been doing this since 1999 and have a long way to go. Focusing on existing products by fine-tuning them will help change the world forever. Allowing new and great ideas to develop internally and then possibly taking a risk is what makes Google great. Google is an innovative company, changing many segments of many industries ever since Day 1. Just as the article says, everyone fears GoogleÃ¢â¬ ¦as they should.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Basics of Monetary Policy Here is a basic information on what a monetary policy is and how it works. The topic of monetary policy is a very real part of the everyday life of people all over the world, but unfortunately, the people responsible for it Ã¢â¬â the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s central bankers and economic ministers Ã¢â¬â seem to have a difficult time discussing it in anything other than the murky terms of hard economics that most ordinary people have a hard time understanding. For example, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s a passage from The Federal Reserve System Purpose Functions, a guide for the American public published by the US Federal Reserve Board: Ã¢â¬Å"Often, a slowing of employment is accompanied by lessened pressures on prices, and moving to counter the weakening of the labor market by easing policy does not have adverse inflationary effects. Sometimes, however, upward pressures on prices are developing as output and employment are softening - especially when an adverse supply shock, such as a spike in energy prices, has occurred. Then, an attempt to restrain inflation pressures would compound the weakness in the economy or an attempt to reverse employment losses would aggravate inflation.Ã¢â¬ Good grief. All of that means, Ã¢â¬Å"Addressing a problem in one part of the economy sometimes creates problems in another part.Ã¢â¬ Monetary policy may indeed be an extremely delicate and difficult job to do well, but it is not really that difficult to understand or explain. But of course, the central banks and treasuries around the world are staffed with economics and finance graduates, not journalists or communications majors; which is probably for the best, but still leaves the average person a little confused about what, exactly, his government is doing to his money. SEASONAL EFFECTS IN STOCK MARKETS The Goal of Monetary Policy is Control of Prices So, what is aÃ monetary policy? Ã¢â¬Å"Monetary policy,Ã¢â¬ defined in as few words as possible, means Ã¢â¬Å"Managing the supply and movement of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s money to keep the prices of goods and services from changing too rapidly or by too great a degree.Ã¢â¬ Every part of the economy Ã¢â¬â jobs, business productivity, consumer buying power, the credit or debt of the government Ã¢â¬â in one way or another is connected to prices, which are since the entire world now operates on a fiat money system, actually expressions of the value of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s currency. There are two basic ways in which governments can control money supply and movement: by manipulation of the physical supply of money, and by controlling the flow of the money supply through the banking system. In most financial systems (the Eurozone, in which a common currency is shared by many countries, is a bit of an exception), the central bank serves as a bridge between the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s treasury and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s banking system; the central bank is the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s bank, and at the same time serves as Ã¢â¬Å"a bank for banks.Ã¢â¬ The actual supply of money is controlled by the treasury; the central bank controls its release into the financial system and also manipulates the movement of money already in the financial system. Prices are of course related to the supply of money. When there is too much money, prices become inflated, because the value of one unit of currency relative to goods or services decreases. When there is too little currency, prices deflate. In the case of inflation, it is the consumer that suffers the negative effects, because they are able to purchase less for the same amount of currency. In the case of deflation, the opposite problem occurs, and it is the producer (supply side) that is negatively affected. Governments aspire to prevent either problem from occurring because inflation or deflation affects spending, which eventually has an impact on production, employment, and even tax revenues. Maintaining absolutely stable prices Ã¢â¬â with no inflation or deflation Ã¢â¬â is practically impossible, so governments aim to control price inflation within a reasonable range; the ideal target differs from country to country depending on particular economic circumstancesÃ but is usually around 2%. Thus in most places, monetary policy amounts to Ã¢â¬Å"a series of actions taken by the government to maintain prices at about a 2% rate of inflationÃ¢â¬ , and there are several ways in which they attempt to do that. MONEY MAKES THE WORLD GO AROUND Instruments of Monetary Policy Increasing the money supply This is the most drastic and risky method of exercising monetary policy, which is perhaps why the US government has given it the friendly-sounding name Ã¢â¬Å"quantitative easingÃ¢â¬ , or QE. QE simply means printing more money; the obvious risk to taking this step is that increasing the physical supply of money causes inflation. The basic idea behind QE is that providing more money for banks to loan and consumers and businesses to spend, the increase in economic activity will more than offset the inflationary effect of a greater money supply. Central bank interest rates These take two basic forms. Lending rates are interest rates charged by the central bank to commercial and retail banks for short-term (usually overnight) loans. Deposit rates are interest paid to banks on short-term deposits to the central bank. Banks are required to maintain reserves of funds against the deposits of their customers. At the end of each business day, the transactions a bank has made that day will usually leave it with a deficit or a surplus with respect to its required reserve, meaning that the bank will either have to borrow to make up the difference, or can deposit the extra amount with the central bank, paying or earning interest as the case may be. Interest rates set by government monetary authorities affect the flow of money in a couple different ways. First, the lending rate usually serves as a benchmark for commercial and retail loan rates; a decrease in interest rates usually creates greater demand for loans, which moves money out of the financial system into the market. Second, the deposit rate is used to manipulate the supply of money in the financial system, and as a consequence, the moneyÃ¢â¬â¢s value relative to other currencies. If the deposit rate is decreased, banks are either less likely to deposit their surplus funds, instead of lending them to other banks or to customers or will earn less Ã¢â¬â i.e., take less money out of the government account to put into the financial system Ã¢â¬â if they do deposit their surplus. Decreasing the deposit rate hypothetically weakens the value of the currency because more money will remain in the financial system. FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2008 Market operations Principally, the sale of government bonds and other securities in the financial markets. Bonds and treasury bills are basically fixed-term loans to the government which has the effect of removing money from the financial system, though of course it usually appears again elsewhere in the form of government spending. In the US and other developed economies, government securities are usually the primary means by which monetary policy is exercised on a day-to-day basis. 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Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Rosenbergs essays THE ROSENBERG CASE Declared the espionage trial of the century, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were accused, convicted, and executed on the basis that they passed the secrets of the Atomic Bomb to the Soviets (Okun pg5). Their execution took place on June 19, 1953 in New Yorks Sing Sing Prison by way of the electric chair( pg5). Their conviction and immediate death sentence sparked controversy and division among the people of America and the people of the world (pg6). Although some believed the Rosenbergs were true war enemies, most people believed they were used as scapegoats for Cold War paranoia which questioned the governments role in securing the There were three defendants, including Julius Rosenberg, Ethel Rosenberg, and Morton Sobell (Radosh pg 13). Julius Rosenberg was born on May 12, 1918 in New York City (pg23). He was the son of Polish immigrants who worked the labor and assembly lines of factories (pg23). Although his father desired Julius to become a rabbi, Julius enrolled at a city college in New York to study electrical engineering (pg23). While in college Julius pursued his other interest, politics. Joining the Steinmetz Club and Young Communists League, he met Morton Sobell, William Pearl, and Joel Barr (pg28). After graduating in 1939, Julius did freelance work until he was hired in 1940 as a civilian employee of the US Army signal Corpse (pg28). Julius became the chairman of Branch 16B in the Communist Party and was later fired for his involvement with the party (pg35). He formed his own business in 1946 with David Greenglass, Bernard Greenglass, and Isadore Goldstein (pg25). To Juliuss surprise, on June 17, 1950, he was arrested on suspicion of espionage after being identified by David Greenglass (pg 15). Although he maintained his innocence throughout the trial, Julius was put to death as a result of his conviction (pg 15)....
Monday, November 4, 2019
The Brain All You AreIs Here - Essay Example The hippocampus stores our long-term memories, and emotions are believed to be stored in the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex controls our judgments and helps moderate our behavior and rein in our impulses. It is also the region associated with future planning. As our judgment power has not reached maturity throughout puberty and in our early adulthood, we do not know how to control our impulses, therefore, our decision making is quite faulty, based on bad judgment. Talent and creativity also depend on our brainÃ¢â¬â¢s activity. The frontal lobe gives us the ability or talent, the temporal lobes and limbic system give us determination and incentive to express it. If the latter part of our brain is impaired, the former is bound to be affected adversely. Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with symptoms of manic depression and mania. A study done on Buddhist monks showed that meditation can help alter our brain activity by causing more activity to occur in the left prefrontal cortex. The study also showed that meditating subjects showed a better immune response to flu shots than others. The brain continues to adapt and change throughout our adulthood. The brain has been shown to adapt to injury, molding itself to compensate for the damaged area of the brain. The hippocampus and grey matter have been also been found to grow and increase in size in response to our activities. Basic emotions can be recognized by the brain regardless of cultural differences, as was shown by a study done by Paul Ekman (in Shreeve 2005). The amygdala in our brain receives the sensory responses from environments that trigger fear responses and reaction to dangers, which, in turn, processes the stimuli, setting the less urgent information aside. Sometimes the basic emotional responses are based on our Ã¢â¬Å"nurtureÃ¢â¬ , these can be unlearned; however, responses like turning our heads suddenly when we feel something moving on our side,
Friday, November 1, 2019
Kola King Advertising - Essay Example This will help us get in touch with a wide variety of consumers, specifically the kids and young adults. Summer is a great time to enjoy the outdoors, spend time with the family, and enjoy cool, refreshing drinks. So why not enjoy the summer with us? With a dedicated team of trained professionals, the campaign will kick off on the first of June. All team members will be wearing T-shirts and caps featuring the unique King Kola logo and design. There will be numerous stalls and tables strategically designated around the metro area handing out King Kola brochures and pamphlets detailing product info and company history. There will be skilled team members at each place ready to answer consumer questions and concerns. One main location will be picked to hold regular weekend BBQÃ¢â¬â¢s where people and families from all over will be able to enjoy the summer fun and get a taste of our new product, King Kola. Staff will be available handing out free samples of the product along with short surveys to gather consumer opinions and feedback. A local celebrity or spokesperson will be sponsored for the campaign and be fully trained about the product and its uniqueness. The celebrity will be present at the summer BBQÃ¢â¬â¢s and share in with the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ experience.