Monday, September 30, 2019

Parris and Procter Essay

How does Miller use setting and action in Set 1of ‘the Crucible’ to establish atmosphere and set the scene for the events which are to unfold?  This essay recounts the various ways in which Arthur Miller uses setting and action to set the atmosphere for the coming events in ‘the Crucible’. During the 1950’s whilst ‘the Crucible’ was being written a phenomenon called McCarthyism was occurring. McCarthy, who was the US president at the time, was determined to hunt down communists in the USA. He was paranoid about Communists and McCarthyism is the name given to the paranoid behaviour of his government in the hunt for communists. Miller was called in front of the judge and was tried, as were a number of his friends, but Miller was not convicted although others were. This is where Miller’s idea for ‘the Crucible’ originated. The link between McCarthyism and the witch-hunt is persecution, which is a common parallel in both situations. Being based on a true story about a historical witch-hunt creates dramatic tension in that the audience are expecting a play based on fact rather than fiction. The audience at the time would have known that the play was about McCarthyism, and by claiming that the play was based on fact Miller creates excitement in the audience who are prepared for a factual account of McCarthyism. It is notable that Miller was unable to perform his play publicly in the US at the time and it had to be performed in Belgium. By using the Salem witch-hunts Miller introduces the audience to the theme of good and evil. The setting and actions in Set 1 establishes atmosphere in particular for the events that are to unfold in the rest of the play. Set 1 in Act 1 is a small, simple bedroom. Within the room there isn’t much furniture and the room appears to be very cold and inhospitable. The room is brightened up by the description of the morning sunlight streaming in through the window, but the window is described as narrow so dulling the image of the room and limiting the sunlight streaming in through the window. The audience then has an image of a small slit of light entering a room of darkness, which creates a visual drama between light and dark. Similarly, the set in Act 2 is described by Miller as ‘the low, dark and rather long living room of the time.’ Again the Set which is a room in Act 3 is described as ‘solemn, even forbidding. Heavy beams jut out, boards of random widths make up the walls.’ As in set 1 there are two ‘high’ windows with ‘sunlight pouring through’. Finally in set 4 Miller describes the prison cell as ‘in darkness but for the moonlight seeping through the bars.’ The set of act 1 indicates a similar parallel in the set of the scene of John Procter in a prison cell, with the light streaming through. Whilst the audience contemplates whether there is hope of Proctor not being accused of dealing in witchcraft, sunlight streams in to the courtroom from the high windows. This represents a glimmer of hope for John Procter. Proctor’s wife then lies to say that her husband is not a lecher, thinking that she is protecting him, and the audience sees all hope dashed away. Later in Set 4 in the prison cell Miller uses the metaphor of moonlight seeping through the bars to show that not all is lost in despair. In all these sets Miller uses the stylistic device of light coming through windows in dark rooms making the audience think that the whole story will be dark with small glimmers of hope throughout. The use of light and dark in the set draws on a parallel of good and evil, hope and despair, justice and injustice. By allowing darkness rather light to dominate so despair, injustice and evil form the dominant atmosphere. The changing atmosphere in the similar settings leaves the audience un-prepared for what is going to take place next. Set 1, as can be seen by examining the text further, the bedroom is always full of tension and it is never the set for anything calm. Bedrooms are normally where people go to relax and sleep but this bedroom is the place where people go to argue and accuse each other of waywardness. This particular bedroom doesn’t belong to anyone and is described as ‘A small upper bedroom’. Bedrooms are normally personalised and made comfortable for the persons whose room it is but this one is cold and bland. This at once tells the audience that this room will be the centre for grievances and dilemma. The first character the audience meets in Act 1 is Reverend Samuel Parris, who is described as in his middle forties. The audience instantaneously get the impression that Parris is a man easily angered as his first words spoken are â€Å"Out of here!† Here Miller adds the action of Parris â€Å"scrambling to his feet in a fury†, which immediately creates tension. Reverend Parris’ short temper and his desperate manner, which he uses to get what he wants, are seen here. His intense anger comes through again when he is arguing with John Proctor â€Å"Man! Don’t a minister deserve a house†¦.†. Parris’s greed shines through and the audience sees a man out to get what he wants and not what’s best for the Church, which he is meant to serve. The audience also see his pretentiousness â€Å"I am a graduate of Harvard College†. He seems to believe that he is superior to everyone else. The confrontation in set 1 Act 1 set the scene for what is to be a far more serious conflict between Parris and Procter in the courtroom. At this point a different atmosphere is created by the tension. Here again there is an argument between Parris and Procter, but roles are reversed, and Proctor seems to be in control. The tension is also amplified by the way in which Parris speaks â€Å"in deadly fear, to Elizabeth†. Deadly fear is strong language and emphasises to the audience that death is in the air. Set 1 Act 1 also prepares the audience for Act 4 Parris is seen out of character where he is grovelling and begging for Procter to confess to dealing with witchcraft, demonstrating the extent to which Parris will go to get a confession, which the audience knows is false.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Basic hygiene practices for food preparation and cooking Essay

Every day people get ill from the food they eat. Micro-organisms including bacteria, viruses and moulds found in food can cause food poisoning, leading to a whole host of unpleasant symptoms, such as stomach pains, diarrhoea and vomiting. Food poisoning can sometimes lead to gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and bowel), or more serious health problems such as blood poisoning (septicaemia) and kidney failure. Anyone can get food poisoning but some people, including babies, children and older people, are more likely to have serious symptoms. This is why this is vital as in the Seaview nursing home the residents are frail older people and several also are in poor general health. They are many basic hygiene practices for food preparation and cooking. This includes: Surfaces Equipment Sell by dates Food Cooking storing Surfaces Food poisoning affects thousands of people every year and many of these cases go unreported. The exact numbers of cases of food related illness that occur each year are unknown. This is because many people do not seek the help of their doctor when their doctor when they develop symptoms. Food poisoning can be extremely dangerously especially for the very young, older service users and those who are ill or infirm. It is therefore important that care workers actions do not increase this problem. To prevent contamination of food it is necessary to follow recognised hygiene procedures to make sure that risks are kept to a minimum. Cleaning and disinfection chemicals are available to maintain the correct standards of cleanliness. Usually these chemicals are added to water to make a cleaning solution. Some come ready to use in spray or aerosol bottles for convenience. Substances used for cleaning food preparation areas fall into three categories: Detergents – are chemicals that will dissolve grease and assist the removal of food debris and dirt. Detergents do not kill bacteria. Disinfectants – are chemicals designed to destroy bacteria and reduce them to a safe level. However disinfectants are not effective at removing grease and dirt’s. Disinfectants have a very strong smell and have the potential to taints foods and if in contact with surfaces that food is prepared on extra care should be taken in rinsing with hot (above 82C) water. Sanitizers– are a combination of both detergents and disinfectants and are designed to kill bacteria and remove dirt and grease at the same time. image00.pngimage00.png Disinfection can also be carried effectively using heat i.e. using hot water (above 82C). Chemicals can be used in addition to this process however are less effective where hot water is not available or a preliminary clean had not been carried out. The combination of the above chemicals and very hot water provide an effective way of keeping surfaces clean. Any work surfaces that is used for food preparation must be strong, durable, easily cleaned, resistance to stain or to absorbing liquids and not easily damaged. In professional food areas stainless steel tables are used for food preparation activities. They are usually on wheels which have brakes so that they can be moved easily which allows for ease of cleaning. It is vital that work surfaces are kept clean and bacteria free. The clean as you go method should be used. This means that all equipment and surfaces should be cleaned as soon as they have been used. This describes cleaning that is carried out as soon as the mess is created, the aim of this is to prevent cross contamination and to keep work areas clean and tidy. Examples of this might be Washing and sanitising of a chopping board straight after use and Cleaning up a floor spillage immediately after it has happened. Any spills should also be mopped up immediately they occur. Work surfaces should be left clean and clear when work has finished. The 5 stages of cleaning work are: Remove food particles and spillages using a suitable damp cloth Use a hot water and detergent solution to remove any grease and debris Rinse thoroughly with very hot water (82C) Use a suitable disinfectant to reduce bacteria to a safe level Final rinse with hot water and dry using paper towels (or allow to air dry) Equipment Only clean equipment if you have been trained to do so. This is especially important where the equipment has sharp cutting surfaces and or moving parts that are run by electricity. Care should be also taken with equipment that is hot or generates a lot of heat, for example cookers and deep fat fryers When training has been done some basic steps should be followed when cleaning equipment. The basic steps are: Disconnect the equipment from the power source Take extra care when removing any blades Remove all waste food Thoroughly wash and sanitize all parts Reassemble the equipment taking care to fit all components correctly in case they fly off during use Sanitize again those parts that will come into contact with food Ensure that all safety guards are refitted correctly. All other small items of equipment like pots, pans, cutlery, plates and glassware can be cleaned in the usual way. This may either be in a dishwasher or by hand using detergent and hot water. Sell by dates Perishable is foods that are likely to go off quickly. They normally have a sell by and use by date on them. Selling food after its sell by date is an offence. The food can be used up to and including the use by date. For an example a carton of milk may have a sell by date till the 14th march and the use by date may be the 16th march. The milk can be used on the 16th and before but not after. Most other foods have a best before day; this indicates the month up to which it will be in its best condition for eating. Some foods don’t have to require a date for example fresh fruits & vegetable’s and meat from the butcher. Food It is vital that certain precautions are taken when providing food for service users. Washing of the hands is vital so hands must be washed: Before entering a food area After using the lavatory Between handling different types of food such as raw meat an cooked Before and after touching foods After coughing into the hands or using a handkerchief After touching face and hair After carrying out cleaning or handling rubbish It is essential that this is done because many bacteria live on the surface of the skin. Many of these are harmless however some can cause illness. Bacteria can be acquired from other sources and can contaminate food. Handling raw mean and poultry and then handling cooked meat is very dangerous unless hands are thoroughly washed in between. Touching the nose or coughing and sneezing over food or preparation areas should be avoided. This is because personal cleanliness is essential or bacteria will be transferred to the food. Also avoid touching the food with hands and glove wearing or using of the tong when possible is a good thing to do. This is because the less hands are in direct contact with food, the less chance there is of contamination. Touching dishes or cutlery that is to come into contact with food should also be avoided. This is because this cuts down the transfer of bacteria. Keeping the hair covered with either a hat or net and not combing hair in the food area should also be done as hair and scalp can carry bacteria that can fall into the food. Also keeping cuts and grazes covered with brightly coloured dressing as wounds are infected with bacteria and if the dressing comes off it can be easily found. Not smoking in the food areas is vital as it is against the law and can contaminate food. Also when ill food handling should not be done. This is vital because a person who is ill can infect food. Another thing that should be done is wearing clean protective clothing as there are fewer bacteria on clean clothes. Cooking Heat kills bacteria and this is why food must be cooked thoroughly. Cooking food at temperatures over 70Â °C will kill off any bacteria. If food isn’t cooked at a high enough temperature, bacteria can still survive. Take special care that you cook meat all the way through. Unless you’re cooking steak or lamb and beef joints rare, it shouldn’t be pink in the middle. Use a clean skewer to pierce the meat. If it’s cooked properly, the juices will run clear. If you’re cooking meat so it’s rare, make sure that it’s properly sealed (browned) on the outside. Large pieces of meat take longer to heat up to the centre. The need for sufficiently high temperatures reaching the centre is very important. Always re-heat pre-cooked food thoroughly and only do so once. When cooking food in the microwave, stir it well from time to time to ensure that it’s evenly cooked all the way through. It is bad practice to mix previously cooked food with newly cooked food. Topping up soup lowers the temperature and increases the risk of bacteria growing. It is much safer to make up food in smaller quantises as and when it is needed. Eggs can carry salmonella, so to safeguard service users, eggs should be cooked for around seven minutes at 70ËšC. High risks foods such as eggs and chicken that are eaten immediately after cooking are safe providing the temperature is high enough. If there is going to be a gap in time between the foods being cooked and being eaten, it must be kept hot. Equipment should be used to hold the food at a temperature of 63ËšC or above. This is could be a heated tray, trolley or service counter. When using this type of equipment; heat the equipment to at least 63ËšC before loading the food, ensure the food is already fully cooked and at a minimum temperature of 63ËšC and never use the equipment to heat up cold or partially heated food. Reheating food can increase the risk of food poisoning. Some food handlers often make the mistake of thinking that because food has already been cooked it is free of bacteria. They believe that is only needs warming up. If it happens, bacteria had ideal conditions for growth for example food, warmth and liquid. Guidelines for food that needs reheating is as follows: Don’t get the food out of the refrigerator too soon and leave it lying it around Handle as little as possible and keep it covered Divide larger items into smaller portions where possible Heat the food to at least 70ËšC as its core Serve quickly following reheating Never reheat cooked food more than once If reheating ready-made meals from a shop, follow the manufactures instructions in addition to the above advice. Storing If you don’t follow the storage guidelines that come with your food, you could be letting yourself in for real problems. Storing food in the wrong place or at the wrong temperature can lead to the growth of bacteria. This means that even one piece of food left out for a couple of hours can contain millions of bacteria as bacteria flourish at body temperature which is 37ËšC. The reason foods are stored in a refrigerator is because bacteria and viruses can’t multiply below 6ËšC. The correct temperature for a refrigerator is between zero and 5ËšC. Chilled foods should be put away quickly but don’t overcrowd the refrigerator as it raises the temperature. With cooked food, let steam evaporate first before covering and placing in the refrigerator. Always keep the refrigerator clean by washing the inside surfaces with warm soapy water. Never thaw then refreeze food. To slowly defrost, take the dish out of the freezer and leave it in the refrigerator overnight rather than on the counter top. Place meats on a plate on the bottom shelf. When defrosting with the microwave, cook the dish immediately. Never freeze food that has gone beyond its use by date and remove old food regularly. Keeping the refrigerator at the right temperature helps prevent bacteria from multiplying. The correct temperature for a refrigerator is below 5ËšC and a freezer and should kept at minus 18ËšC. Check both the refrigerator and freezer regularly with a reliable thermometer. To maintain a constant temperature, keep the door shut whenever possible. When storing food in a fridge: Don’t allow the juice from the raw meat, fish and poultry to spill or drip onto any other foods. Put fruit and vegetable’s items into the salad drawer Keep milk and fruit juices on the bottom rack in the door Place dairy products , dressings, spreads, sauces, cream and convince foods on the centre and top shelves Store raw meat, fish and poultry on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. this prevents cross contamination as the blood as the other liquids from the meat and fish cannot drip down onto other foods Cooked foods should be kept on the top shelves of the refrigerator Mayonnaise and ketchup should be kept in the refrigerator after opening Never place food in an open tin in the refrigerator. Use secure containers instead and throw the food out after two or three days Keep seafood either in the refrigerator or in the freezer until you are ready to prepare it Cross contamination occurs when food is put in contact with other contaminated foods. An example of this could be the blood from a piece of chicken dripping onto a plate of cooked food. Cross contamination means that the bacteria or other pathogens have been transferred from an infected food item. They either become infected or contaminated. If food looks or smells in any way, throw it out. A sure sign of spoilage is mould. Most mouldy foods should be binned along with leaking cartons and food which has gone past its use by date. Most frozen foods should be thrown out after three to six month’s. When storing food in the freezer, remove it from the wrapping and place it in a labelled and dated freezer bag. Remember to expel all the air from the bag before sealing it. If a power cut has occurred then foods that have started to defrost should be thrown out. If the power comes back on and if there is any doubt about which foods have defrosted and refrozen, the food should be thrown away. Food that does not need keeping cold should be kept in a sealed container in a cool dry cupboard or larder. It should never be stored on the floor. Vegetables can normally be kept in a cool, dry place in loose bags or racks but not in plastic bags. This makes them sweat and rot quicker.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

School Vending Machines

Dylan Norwood per. 5 #25 2-7-11 Vending Machines Did you eat anything today? â€Å"No. † Well how did you do on the test, not too good right? I believe that children who are’nt hungry do better on tests and focus more in school. Studies show that when children eat breakfist they do better in school. That’s true, but kids tend to get hungry right after breakfist. I think vending machines would be a good idea to have in schools; having vending machines would allow kids not to starve which willl cause children to focus in school.Well what about more trash on campus or too much children eating in class you wonder. Those issues can be easily resolved by putting more trash cans where children walk to their classes and also by the vending machine. I think the reason children don't focus in class when they're hungry is because they focus more on eating at lunch time instead of working on their classwork. If vending machines were at school, kids won't have to wait until l unch to buy food. Therefore kids won't be hungry during class, and they will focus more in school.You might think that kids will eat too much before lunch, but that's why I suggest we put a limit of how much you can buy. How can we do this you might ask? It's simple; by using children's school ID's to buy snacks would only lets them buy snacks three times a day. One of the most common issue is what will be in the vending machines. Most concerned parents are worried that schools would put a lot of unhealthy snacks such as cheetos, lays, chocolate, etc. Schools might put these things in the vending machines because it tastes good, and kids will buy them.I admit that it is true the majority of kids don't want to buy nutritious food because it doesn't taste good, but there are some other nutritous food like granola bars, fruit snacks, and many more. Parents will always try to think of new problems that concerns vending machines at school. I admit some problems the school might not be ab le to fix, but what matters most is it does more good than bad. I believe children that aren't hungry do better on tests and focus more in school.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Employment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Employment - Essay Example This is considered to be undesirable as the company will have to incur high training costs and will be left with inexperienced employees. In order to avoid this, the company should keep their employees motivated and give them additional benefits like bonuses, holidays etc. staff turnover is calculated by dividing the number of employees leaving the company by the current employees and then multiplying by hundred. Different types of staff turnover include internal, external, voluntary and involuntary. 2. Turnover can be internal or external. Internal turnover is when employees leave their current jobs to take over new positions in the same company. This can be a due to a number of positive and negative reasons. The employees might like the way the management treats its employees and therefore, they want to work in the same organization. Internal turnover is as important for the company as an external one. External turnover happens when the employees leave their jobs to work in other c ompanies or organizations. The employees might be unhappy with the way the employees are treated or the environment of the organization. The management should consider both these turnovers because a high staff turnover is not healthy for any organization. 3. The hospitality industry includes jobs in hotels, resorts etc. where the employees have to make the guests feel at home. This industry has a high turnover because of a number of reasons. One reason is its nature of seasonality. It is hard for the employees in off-the-peak season and therefore, the turnover is high. Also the work environment of this industry might not be good and the employees might not be treated in a good way. Another main factor is that dealing with customers is also not an easy task. Pay rates are often really low and along with less benefits, employees working in this industry get de-motivated. Therefore, the staff turnover of this industry is really high. 4. The costs of high turnover can have negative effe cts on the financial statements of a company. There are a number of techniques or tools which they can use in order to reduce their turnover rate. One tool is to provide a better working environment for the employees and to treat them well. To make their organization an employee oriented one which would keep the employees motivated. Another technique is to hire the right people suitable for the organization and provide them with adequate training facilities. Building loyal relationships with employees is also another tool which the organization can use. The organization can provide positive reinforcement to the employees by giving them incentives such as compensation, bonus, non-cash rewards and other benefits as well 5. Employee retention is extremely important for the success of an organization. High turnover rates are very costly for the company and therefore, they need to find ways to retain as many employees as possible. The costs of high turnover rates include training costs, recruiting costs and can have a negative affect on the financial position of an organization. The management needs to keep their employees motivated in order to have a high retention rate. Also that with high retention rates, experienced workers remains with the organization and continue to provide their advice so that the goals of the company are met. An effective employee retention program can help the reputation of the company and also improves employee morale. It also makes sure that the productivity and performance of the employees are maintained. 6. A high turnover rate can prove to be costly for the company. The costs are both direct and indirect. The direct costs include recruitment cost, the cost the company incurs when an employee leaves

Thursday, September 26, 2019

International Business - Bicycles and Economy Essay

International Business - Bicycles and Economy - Essay Example The era which was about providing a core product to the customer has gone far behind, also the era of providing the actual product has merely ended, and customers now have more willingness to get the augmented product, which means few frills attached services along with the product as well. Keeping the customer's preferences, likes and dislike, the launch of a cycle would not be that unusual, but the idea is to prepare a plan that could lead to success in various countries. The country selection for the launch of our product is a critical decision, one cannot simply expect to have our product launched in any country and yet it remains a successful launch. Bicycles are common modes of transportations used worldwide specially by students and also people who love racing on bicycles, therefore neither a small country can help us launching our product, nor a big country having a lot of poverty in it can. We all have to think keeping the nature of product and nature of market in the mind. "As the world's economies become more integrated and international business becomes more globalized, the nature of international business management concerns changes as well. New areas of international business research have arisen that could not even have been imagined by observers twenty-five years ago"(Ricks, Wright 687, Vol 25: 1994). The product now has to be la... ntries in which it could gain some market, according to the visual analyses, which should be very accurate, the three countries in which the product should be launched are, United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa. The reason of not launching the product in the countries that are below poverty line is simple, we cannot expect those countries to use our product that are having much lower class which is using cycles that are just serving as a core product, due to poverty these countries might not have been able to afford our product, and also there is a good competition in such countries with their privately made bicycles which people over there are use to. There are however different sort of issues in launching the product in the above mentioned three countries but yet the reward is likely to be fruitful, as these countries serve as a base to make the product well known through out the world and sooner if launching would be successful in these three countries then the product is going to be launched internationally and we are likely to have more contracts from the other countries as well. The most prominent reasons for launching the product in these three countries are that, the people living there are mostly on foot and students use bicycles for traveling short distances, also racing is another feature of these countries, cycles are used commonly in having races there. The other reasons for launching the product in these countries might be related to the economy and living standards, as I have earlier mentioned that our product would not be launched in the countries that are below poverty line, so launching them in much stable countri es is a very good options. It is difficult to say that the economies of these three countries would be anymore disturbed by our

Public Policy essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Public Policy - Essay Example of Afro Americans especially in America where slavery was rife were denied the right to equality and they suffered a heavy deal under oppressive systems that existed during those years. In a protracted struggle to fight slavery in America, various movements were established and among them was the â€Å"Civil Rights Movement† which referred to an extended period of American history in which African Americans struggled to become free of the tyranny of slavery where they also fought for equal opportunity and the protection of the civil rights guaranteed through the United States Constitution (Lovino 2008). Though the civil rights were guaranteed by the constitution, Afro Americans who were still under slavery unfortunately were still struggling to realise their rights. The movements for rights became rife around the late 1960s, a period which witnessed the passing of many laws supporting civil rights by the Congress and there was a shift in the ideology of Americans and racial politics in America (Boyer, 2001). Thus, according to the historical background of the fight for civil rights outlined above, a broad definition can be implied to sum up what civil rights are for the purpose of easier understanding. According to Cornel University Law School (2009), â€Å"a civil right is an enforceable right or privilege, which if interfered with by another gives rise to an action for injury. There are quite a number of examples of civil rights and they include the following: freedom of speech, press, and assembly; the right to vote; freedom from involuntary servitude; and the right to equality in public places.† On the other hand, Bodenhamer J. D. & Ely J.W. (1993) posit to the effect that discrimination occurs when the civil rights of an individual are denied or infringed on the basis of racial inequality caused by class structures. It can be noted that various statutes have been enacted to prevent discrimination in different countries as well as promote other civil rights

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Triaxial method Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Triaxial method - Lab Report Example Insitu soil material is tested in during subsurface phase. This phase is an investigation stage that will help prepare design a waste containment facility or structures. The tests done will be used for structural fill, recompacted soil layers, and any other engineering components. These forms of tests are called conformance tests and are performed before any construction starts. Appropriate ASTM test methods must be followed when performing tests of materials. The common tests applied in geotechnical investigation are; Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions ASTM 3080, Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils ASTM 2850, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil ASTM 2166, Standard Test Method for Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils ASTM 4767 and Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils ASTM D 2435.1.0Â  Theoretical BackgroundThe purpose of this test is to establish the undrained shear strength of soil and applied to scenarios where fine-grained soils will be saturated and loading expected at a rate that overwhelms the ability of soil materials to dissipate excess pore water pressure. The author states that the shear strength parameters of fine and course grained soils in undisturbed or remolded state is quickly established. In a situation where the rate of construction is slow and allows the soil.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Could Christianity have benefited without Constantine Research Paper

Could Christianity have benefited without Constantine - Research Paper Example In preliminary readings, there seem to be two extreme views of Emperor Constantine who ruled the Roman Empire between 306 and 337.One school of thought asserts that Constantine was the founder of Christendom and his laws and actions laid the foundation for the institution of Christianity in the Roman Empire and throughout Europe. Another set of thinkers present Constantine as an opportunist who used Christianity to further his personal political goal of unifying and ruling the Roman Empire. In either contexts, it can be argued that Constantine played a fundamental role in the promotion of Christianity. This paper examines whether Christianity could have persisted without Constantine or not. According to Professor Stark, in the year AD40, Christians were very few and some estimates put the entire membership of the religion at around 1,0001. It was like any other religious sect and any other group in the Roman empire. However, Christianity grew at a very outstanding rate of 3.42% per a nnum and 40% per decade around AD2502. This suggests that Christianity was already growing when Constantine took over the reign of the Roman Empire in AD 306. In light of this fact, this research will proceed on the premise that Christianity would have survived and grown even without the pro-Christian policies of Constantine. The research will test this hypothesis to ascertain its truthfulness or falsity. Persecutions Before Constantine Constantine was serving in the court of Diocletian who ruled Rome from 285 – 305 AD3. ... om the eyes of Diocletian and other Romans of his generation, Christianity was a foreign religion that had its roots in Ancient Israel, then known to the Romans as Palestine. Due to this, the Romans could not take the criticisms in good faith and make adjustments to their beliefs. Rather, Diocletian and his government felt compelled to take action against the Christian critics of the Roman pagan religious system. Diocletian and his government launched the Great Persecution which was the last and the most severe Roman persecution of the Early Christians5. In the national context, Christianity was illegal in the Roman Empire in Diocletian's era. This was the official position and most people in the Roman Empire saw it as a secret society and looked at the members with a high degree of skepticism and suspicion6. Christianity was neither Roman nor Barbarian; it was just some kind of foreign religion that posed a threat to the Roman culture7. More significantly, Christianity in the time o f Diocletian was expanding. This created an urgent need to control the expansion of Christianity. On February 23, 303, Diocletian destroyed the Church in Nicomeda and burnt scriptures and confiscated the Church's assets and treasures8. This sent a clear message that Diocletian was against the expansion and growth of the Christian Church. He was obviously not ready to tolerate the Christian Church as a competitor to traditional Roman customs and practices. On the same day, Diocletian issued an edict against Christians which prohibited Christian worship in the Roman Empire9. Three more edicts were issued by Diocletian and these were meant to ban the practice of Christianity and prevent Christians from carrying out their activities, which he thought were detrimental to the Empire and against

Monday, September 23, 2019

Economics of Rice and Gender Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Economics of Rice and Gender - Essay Example She gives them similar books to their life experiences, which make them, reflects on their past tormenting experiences, which leads each of them to keep a diary. The students became motivated and changed their pathetic lifestyle for unity and being more forecast in life. They altered their forename to â€Å"freedom writers†. The movie has a series of life-changing themes such as self-reflection, patience, facing harsh conditions, striving for victory and certainty (Sara, 1). The students have undoubtedly undergone a momentous experience, and they can give back to the society as they not only leave whatever learned in the classroom, but they also extend it to the outside world. They also take the lead in helping others realize and nurture their potentials and maximize them. Additionally, they act as a vehicle for change in the society after realizing how powerful they can be. They try to transform a society rooted in marginalization along ethnic lines and try to instill confidence in them. However, despite being a role model to her student’s, Erin faces no acceptance from people around her and she has her father to cling onto. For instance, she has to do away with her intimidating husband. She also has to battle her jealous colleagues, who question her tremendous rise and popularity and educational board regulations, which she has to clash with. The toast of change scene in the movie just sincerely talks about Erin’s contribution towards the making up of her students. It depicts Erin as a selfless teacher, professor, mentor and a role model to her student’s lives. She makes them be aware of themselves and use their maximum potentials to reach wherever they want to and be what they want to be. She gives them an empowerment tool despite their parallel background she has nothing in common with them. Erin humbles herself down to the student level so that the students could understand her better yet they share nothing in common.  She attempts to develop the unsatisfactory experiences the society and life have passed on to her marginalized students.  

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The War of 1812 Essay Example for Free

The War of 1812 Essay The War of 1812 was an important event in American history because from the end of the war forward the United States was respected internationally as a nation. In essence, the United States would gain nothing from the War of 1812 after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, but what the United States would end the Native American threat on its westernmost borders, but also a new sense of nationalism would emerge. While the causes and effects are diverse in nature, the War of 1812 made a lasting impact on American history as being the event that taught the fledgling nation what it meant to be independent, and teaching it to be prepared militarily. One of the key elements that helped in the growing development of the United States military was the realization that the military was unprepared for the War of 1812. The United States was a new country and their military was not as prepared for a war. The primary soldiers were state militias who were untrained and not ready to see battle but as a new nation that hadnt had the time to create a strong military system, the United States had to use them if they were going to be able to fight the war. If the United States had had a better plan for the international situations that arose surrounding a nation the war may never have had to be fought. Communication was a problem as well as there were instances where it became sorely obvious how unprepared they were for this sort of situation. For example, by the time the United States entered into a declaration of war, the British had already rescinded the Order in Council. Also, when the war was ended two years later the bloodiest battle of the war would take place two weeks later because communication of the wars end did not reach the far south of the United States. The nation was unprepared to fight a war and unprepared to communicate during a war (The War of 1812). The War of 1812 had many effects on the United States. The war, which had begun as an issue involving maritime trade lines, became something even more close to home as the war turned against the Native Americans in the northern areas of the United States. The War Hawks, in fact, would get more than they could have hoped for with their victory on their own shores. This war also brought about a new sense of nationalism in the United States, a country fighting to prove its place in a world of established nations. The War of 1812 changed the face of American history for decades to come. Without this war there would have never been the type of American pride that is still felt by the average American today. The war also taught the United States a few things about their foreign policy and how to deal with international issues, and showed them how important it was to be militarily prepared for anything. The Native Americans of the northern part of the country were conquered and, while there was still bad feelings between the US and Great Britain it was nothing like it had been before.This war changed the landscape of the United States as well as its politics, making an impact that was felt for centuries. Works Cited Mintz, S. , comp. War of 1812. 2003. Digital History. 17 Mar. 2007 http://www. digitalhistory. uh. edu/historyonline/us10. cfm. Nelson, Rebecca, ed. The Handy History Answer Book. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1999. 99-101. The War of 1812. 2007. Wisconsin Historical Society. 17 Mar. 2007 http://www. wisconsinhistory. org/turningpoints/tp-010/.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Leukemia: An overview

Leukemia: An overview What Is Leukemia? Leukemia is the general term used to describe four different disease-types called: Acute Myelogenous (AML), Acute Lymphocytic (ALL), Chronic Myleogenous (CML), and Chronic Lymphocytic (CLL). AML, the most common type of leukemia, is an attacking cancer of the bone marrow and blood. ALL, the most common in young children and adults over 50, is a cancer of the lymphocytes. CML is a cancer of the blood-producing cells of the bone marrow. CLL is a cancer of the lymphocytes. What are the Symptoms of Leukemia? The symptoms for leukemia depend on the type of leukemia. For AML, the symptoms are: fatigue, weakness, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, fever, bone or abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, frequent infections, swollen glands, and swollen or bleeding gums. For ALL, the symptoms are: fatigue, weakness, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, fever, bone or abdominal pain, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), frequent infections, swollen glands, and enlarged liver or spleen. For CML, the symptoms are: fatigue, excessive sweating, weight loss, and abdominal swelling or discomfort because of enlarged spleen. For CLL, the symptoms are: swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, under the arms, or in the groin, discomfort or fullness in the upper left part of the abdomen because of enlarged spleen, fatigue, fever or infection, abnormal bleeding, and weight loss. What is the Diagnosis? The diagnosis for leukemia again depends on the type of leukemia. For AML, the tests that may be used to diagnosis a patient with AML are: blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, lumbar puncture, imaging tests, and subtypes. The tests that may be used to diagnose a patient with ALL is a little bit different. They are: blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, flow cytometry and cytochemistry, cytogenetics, lumbar puncture, and imaging tests. The tests for CML are: blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, cytogenetics, and imaging tests. The tests for CLL are: blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, flow cytometry and cytochemistry, and imaging tests. Some of the factors that may be considered by your doctor when choosing a diagnosis test are: age and medical condition, the type of cancer, severity of symptoms, and previous test results. What are the Risk Factors? A risk factor is anything that increases a persons chance of developing cancer. Some can be controlled, while some others cant. Most do not directly cause cancer. The risk factors that may raise your chances to get any one of those types of leukemia are: your age, if you smoked or if you are smoking, genetic disorders, high doses of radiation, if you had a previous chemotherapy treatment, race, viruses, gender, family history, and ethnicity. What is the Treatment? The treatment for each type of leukemia may depend on the classification, how healthy the person is, the patients stage, risk status, the subtype, morphology, and cytogenetics. Some of the kinds of treatments are: chemotherapy, induction, complete remission (CR), consolidation therapy, maintenance therapy, re-induction therapy, and central nervous system prophylaxis (preventive treatment), consolidation or intensification, Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Treatment (APL), Imatinib, Dasatinib, Nilotinib, stem cell transplantation/bone marrow transplantation, Interferon, SCT, Hydroxyurea, and Biologic therapy. What are the Side Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment? Cancer and cancer treatment can cause a variety of side effects. Some of the side effects are: constipation, fatigue, hair loss, infection, mouth sores, nausea and vomiting, Neutropenia, skin problems, and Thromboc- ytopenia. Not all patients have side effects. What about After Treatment? After treatment, talk to your doctor about developing a follow-up care plan. People that are in remission should have regular follow-up examinations for a few years to see if there is any sign of relapse or late effects. What are Some Questions to Ask the Doctor? Some questions that you should ask the doctor are: â€Å"What is my Diagnosis?, What does this all mean?, What subtype of (ALL, AML, CML, and CLL) do I have?, What are the possible side effects of this treatment?, What clinical trials are open to me?, Do I need to start treatment right away?, How likely is it that my (ALL, AML, CML, or CLL) will go into remission?, How will the treatment affect my normal activities, including my ability to work or attend school?, What support services are available to me?, Can you recommend a leukemia specialist?, and Where is the best place for me to be treated?.† What is the Classification for ALL Leukemia? The doctors classify ALL based on the type of lymphocytes that are affected.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Fundamentals of Information Technology

Fundamentals of Information Technology Human Computer Interface (HCI) Kurosu (2011) defines usability as the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. Usability is dependent on the context of use and that the level of usability achieved will depend on the specific circumstances in which a product is used. The context of use consists of the users, tasks, equipment, and the physical and organizational environments which may all influence the usability of a product Microsoft Visio and Word Interfaces look almost identical with its white shaded ribbons of tools. What are so vastly different between the two applications is their uses. Microsoft Word is a word processing application used for professional looking documentation while Visio is a diagramming and vector graphics application.ÂÂ   An enhancement in terms of usability with Microsoft Word would be its spelling and grammar tool found on the review ribbon. An integrated Speech to text within Word could add to its HCI.ÂÂ   This type of feature could make Swagger Distributions document creation seamlessly faster by adding speech dictation. Databases The Clothing Manufacturers Table houses the manufacturers name, street address, city, state and zip. The Clothing Products table holds the clothing item, color, manufacturers name, wholesale price and retail price The Retail Stares table stores the information for store name, street address, and city, state, zip and clothing item. The Clothing Products table bears currency fields while the Clothing Manufacturers and Rectal Store table has number fields, When opening the Clothing Products table, I could see both the wholesale and retail prices were incorrectly formatted. When changing the retail price from text to currency the prices became correctly formatted. Custom formatting only changed how the data is displayed and does not affect how the data is stored in a Microsoft Access database, or how users can enter or edit data (Microsoft Blog, n.d.). The query creates a list of clothing items in retail stores. It shows the retail store name and state and the clothing item, manufacturer name and retail price. The report is sorted alphabetically by retail store name. There is no secondary sort, because of this, the list of clothing items in each retail store will come out in a random, unpredictable and inconsistent order (Microsoft Blog, n.d.). The Retail Stores table links to the Clothing Products table based on the clothing item. The Clothing Products table links to the Clothing Manufacturers table based on the Manufacturer Name. Visio There are many kinds of Visio diagrams, including flow charts, networking diagrams, and home or office plans. However, you use the same three basic steps to create most of them: Opening a template. Dragging and connect shapes. Adding text to shapes. The Connector Tool in Visio 2013 found in the tools section of the Home Ribbon is used to Auto Connect shapes and stencils. On the insert ribbon of Visio you can insert objects such as pictures on to the canvas. You can begin this process by clicking insert on the Insert ribbon and clicking the option youd like in the illustrations section.. Within the Visio Design Ribbon a user can select their page layout between Portrait and Landscape, whichever works best for that users display. To select an orientation, click on the Orientation option in the Page Setup section of the Design Ribbon. Users can Save their stencils and diagrams by clicking the save option on the Title Bar. A user can consult the Help option on the Visio Title Bar to search the database for help using the application. Visio Help Database Networking Computer Rooms typically provided by libraries to the public, academic institutions to retain access to the Computers (Tomsho, Tittel, Johnson, 2015, p. 315). Swaggered Distributions consists of three segments towards network offices, computer room, and warehouse. The wide area network fits into the computer room private network with the means of the T1 demarcation router. The demarcation router switches over toward the public wide area network where swagger distributions private network resides. The system has a main router whose main is to apply Dynamic Host Control Protocol and routes IP addresses to all connected devices in the network segment. The DHCP server then allocates IP address to the firewall. The firewall based on the security policies allows certain packets of information in and out of the network. Within the computer room, there is a server which acts as a dedicated place for storing files applications where other network based computers which are permitted to log i nto and retrieve specific information. There is also an Ethernet switch whose main duty is to direct packets of information towards the correct connected device in the network and allocate the priority for each data packet sent and received throughout the network. The Ethernet switch acts as the type of hub that extends the network in the direction of the warehouse where it connects by using fiber optic cable to link the two network segments. The fiber optic cable transmits data. The computer room then has another panel that functions as a hub to the segment of the computer room along with the office PCs. The warehouse and the office consist of one remote Ethernet switch. The office, where the PC are connected via category 5 twisted-pair networking cabling runs through the wall into a face plate and directly to the PC allowing that PC to connect to the central servers. Diagram for WLAN Programming: import java.util.*; import java.lang.*; import java.io.*; /* Name of the class has to be Main only if the class is public. */ public class HelloWorld { public static void main (String[] args) throws java.lang.Exception { int day; int month; int year; GregorianCalendar date = new GregorianCalendar(); day = date.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH); month = date.get(Calendar.MONTH); year = date.get(Calendar.YEAR); System.out.println(Welcome to Swagger Distribution!); System.out.println(Welcome, Todays date is +(month+1)+/+day+/+year); } } Code Compiled Successfully The main changes to the original code have been bolded and can be summarized as follows.ÂÂ   SYSTEM.OUT.PRINTL is a built in class in the Java language in which Downing (1999), states the OUT aspect functions to print various data values specified While the PRINTLN() aspect prints data values within a a public method (p.144). The SEMICOLONis a Java compiler expression that communicates within the compiler a statement is complete. The Calendar Code is a built in Java class returns a general object of its type whose calendar fields have been initialized with the current date and time (Downing Downing, 1999, p. 217). Web Technologies According to W3CS standards a website built solely with HTML 5 may have cross compatibility issues across multiple web browsers. HTML5s is not always supported on all browsers, so it is one of the major drawbacks of HTML5. (Dahl, 2017) Core Web Functionalities: Navigation: The ease of access and functionality of a user navigational experience improves the initial website assessment of said user which if positive will cause the user to become a repeat customer. Search:ÂÂ   A search function could prove to be beneficial to a user in the case of Big Data.ÂÂ   The website has too large data set volumes for traditional data processing applications to handle. Readability:ÂÂ   All part of ease of access; readability is just as pivotal. A user should have a seamless time reading the content presented in all aspects. Site Map: A secondary to navigation provided to the user when said user has trouble finding specific information. Accessibility: Following the W3 standards it is important to have accessibility features so that the disabled users can also access and utilize a website successfully with features such as page magnifying, text to speech and on board keyboard. Plug-in: Plug-ins such as social media accounts and other traffic building tools add functionality to a webpage. Subscribe: Subscribing to the companys mailing list to receive the latest on the company happenings and offers to persuade user purchasing of participation. Validation: Ensuring that all vital information required for successful submission on a form is present Conditions and Privacy: It is imperative to cover the legal aspects of using a Companys services and how they may us your entered data. Speed: The speed in which a website loads relies on whether its content and media is optimized appropriately. Amazon, one of the largest online retail stores utilizing the Search Box function. Same retailer, Amazon utilizing structured navigation with the added user ability of headings and sub-headings. Information Security Vacca (2014) defines Information as data that we can organize and process and store distributive or centrally. Any company large or small, data is the most valuable asset and must be securely protected. In terms of the Customers, a data breach could result in the loss of financial information in the form of credit card information and other crucial details. Consumers may lose faith and credibility in the Company for data lose which in turn could cause the total demise of the Company. It is imperative Swagger Distributions has a well conceived plan ofÂÂ   attack and also a preventive plan as well. This past year, half of organizations suffered multiple levels of security incidents. It is recommended that a centralized security team be hired. This team will be responsible for coordinating and executing the security plans. In keeping with a Central Security Team concept there should be a dedicated Security Monitoring team keeping real time track of Applications that has access to Swagger Distributions Data. Statically, hackers attack through the least secure Applications (Vacca, 2014, p. 3); making it easier to corrupt and steal sensitive information. This Monitoring team will report directly to the head of the Central Security Team. One of the largest data break-ins in history (Consumers International, 2015, p. 417); Sony Play Station Network was hacked April 2011. Consumers International (2015) reported the attack is speculated to be an external intrusion that caused the reveal of reported 77 million user accounts information. This information included names, birthdays, email addresses, passwords, security questions, and credit card credentials, of all Play Station Network users. The hack was reportedly caused by an unknown weakness (Consumers International, 2015, p. 418). In Sonys Network causing Sony to temporarily shut down their Network to investigate. References Consumers International (2015). Consumers in the Information Society: Access, Fairness and Representation. Consumers International. Dahl, D. (2017). Multimodal Interaction with W3C Standards. Springer. Downing, D. A., Downing, D. (1999). Computer programming in java, the easy way. New York, NY, United States: Barrons Educational Series Inc.,U.S. Microsoft (2017a). Microsoft A Beginners Guide to Visio. . Retrieved from : https://support.office.com/en-us/article/A-beginner-s-guide-to-Visio-bc1605de-d9f3-4c3a-970c-19876386047c Microsoft. (2017b). Support. Retrieved from Microsoft Blog, https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Specify-how-data-displays-by-using-custom-formatting-a5e5bcde-85da-4c7a-8164-1fe286636668?ui=en-USrs=en-USad=US Tomsho, G., Tittel, E., Johnson, D. (2015). Guide to networking essentials (7th ed.). United States: Thomson/Course Technology. Vacca, J. R. (2014). Computer and information security handbook (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is an imprint of Elsevier.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Dalai Lama: A Path to Greater Happiness Essay -- Happiness Essays

The Dalai Lama is a profound believer of peace, compassion, love and nonviolence. He is considered by Tibetan Buddhists to be the reincarnation of the Buddha of Compassion and was meant to lead the people. Even though he has had a tough time throughout most of his life time and has struggles to free his homeland from the Chinese occupation he has consistently opposed the use of violence. â€Å"He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people.† (The Dalai Lama A Simple Path and An Open Heart pp. 800).Dalai Lama, since then, began teaching about the Four Noble Truths, in order to demonstrate that they offer an insightful path to greater happiness for individuals, and for humanity. The first noble truth is The Truth of Suffering. Dalai Lama says that we face three different types of sufferings: the suffering of suffering, the suffering of change, and all pervasive suffering. An example of the first category of suffering can be poverty and disease in countries, where these two can be eliminated and improved. The suffering of change can be seen in such places where poverty is not much of a problem. For instance, we may be happy of overcoming a problem an ancestor faced but when we least expect it new problems will arise. People who suffer from pervasive suffering can be those in developed countries who have everything and become bored of the feeling of happiness and begin to seek the feeling of equanimity. The second noble truth is The Cause of Suffering. Dalai Lama states that â€Å" †¦ the ultimate cause of suffering is the mind; the mind that is influenced by negative thoughts such as anger, attachment, jealousy, and s... ...and tension. We would not have any basic human problems. People would have serenity and be content with the world. The world we live in would be the total opposite of today. Society wouldn’t have any crime, violence, war, or disasters. Human beings would not be facing each other with hatred, jealousy, greediness, and all those negative attitudes towards people. Works Cited Susan McLeod, John Jarvis, Shelley Spear Writing About the World "The Dalai Lama A Simple Path and An Open Heart" Thomson Wadsworth, Third Edition. 2005 pages 800-8005 Lama, Dalai. â€Å" His Holiness the Dalai Lama† Web. 8 Apr. 2015. http://www.dalailama.com/messages/world-peace/a-human-approach-to-peace Lama, Dalai. â€Å" Four Noble Truths.† Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. 2005. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. http://www.lamayeshe.com/index.php?sect=article&id=380

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The color purple :: essays research papers

The story really begins in about 1903 with the killing of Celie's father by jealous white guys. Celie's mother goes insane but marries a man who is just using her. When Celie is 14 this stepfather, who she thinks is her dad, begins to rape her, causing the birth of two children which he gives away to a missionary friend of his. Celie's mother dies angry at Celie and, because she's been warned by her stepfather not to tell anyone (but God) who fathered her children, Celie writes letters to God. Later, when her younger sister, Nettie, runs away from home, she comes to the house Celie shares with Mr. ______, her abusive husband who was going to marry Nettie but her stepfather said no, who married Celie so that she could look after his kids from his first marrage. Because Nettie rejects him, he kicks her out of his house and Celie sends her to the same missionaries (Samuel and Corrine) who have unknowingly adopted her children, Olivia and Adam. Nettie goes with them to Africa as a missionary, where she stays for thirty years, faithfully writing letters to Celie, never knowing if she's receving them. After years of abuse, Celie begins to become more optimistic when Shug Avery, a blues singer and old lover of Mr. _______'s, is brought home by him because she's sick, so that Celie can nurse her. Celie and Shug fall in love, and Celie leaves Mr. _______ to go with Shug to Memphis. Here, Shug makes a good living singing and Celie starts designing and sewing pants for Shug, this hobby finally spawning a business. Then, Celie finds out that Mr. _______ had hidden all the letters Nettie had written to Celie over the years. In the letters, which she finally gets to read, Nettie's life is revealed. She and Celie's children, Samuel and Corrine live with the Olinka in a small village in West Africa. They all teach and nurse and Samuel preaches. Corrine lets her thoughts about how strong the resemblance between her adopted children and Nettie fester and, with help from a tropical fever, agonizes herself to death. After she dies, Samuel and Nettie decide to get married. During this all, the Olinka's village is destroyed by an English company, and the Olinka are forced off their land. Adam marries Tashi, an Olinkan, and they all return to America.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Organizational development Essay

Although the main reasons people resist change is the fear of the unknown, breaking routines and incongruent team dynamics, organizational change is necessary if the organization is to remain competitive. Change is a combination of action orientation and research orientation†¦ but most importantly, every organization, whether large or small requires one or more change agents. Organizational development is a set of behavioral science based theories, values, strategies and technologies aimed at planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance through the alteration of organizational members on the job behaviors† (Jex, & Britt, 2007. ) Organizational change is necessary if the organization is to remain competitive. Social Psychologist, Kurt Lewin, developed the force field analysis model to help us understand how the change process works. One side of the force field model represents the driving forces that push organizations toward a new state of affairs. â€Å"There are driving forces in the external environment such as globalization, virtual work and a changing workforce. Within these external forces, corporate leaders create driving forces within the organization so the organization anticipates the external factors. Internal originated forces are difficult to apply because they lack external justifications, so effective transformational leadership as well as structural change mechanisms are necessary to legitimate and support internal driving forces†. The other side of Lewins model represents the restraining forces that maintain the status quo. Restraining forces are commonly called â€Å"resistance to change† (McShane & VonGlinlow, 2008), because they appear as employee behaviors that block the change process. Stability will occur when these two forces are equal with each other but in opposite directions. The main reasons people resist change is fear of the unknown, breaking routines and incongruent team dynamics. According to Lewins force field analysis model â€Å"effective change occurs by unfreezing the current situation, moving to a desired condition and then refreezing the system so it remains in this desired state. Unfreezing occurs when the driving forces are stronger than the restraining forces. This happens by making the driving forces stronger, weakening or removing the restraining forces, or a combination of both† (McShane & VonGlinlow, 2008) Creating urgency, which represent the driving forces for change, will push employees out of their comfort zones. Many of top management leaders will buffer their employees from external factors and the result is the employees do not understand the need for change and will resist. â€Å"Employees need to feel an urgency to change; which occurs by informing them about competitors, changing consumer trends, impending government regulations and other driving forces† (McShane & VonGlinlow, 2008) Another way to fuel the urgency to change is by putting employees in direct contact with customers. Dissatisfied customers are a compelling driving force for change because of adverse consequences for the organizations survival and success. Exposing employees to external forces can also strengthen the urgency for change, but a leader needs to begin the change process before problems come knocking. â€Å"Creating an urgency for change when an organization is riding high requires a lot of persuasion and influence that helps employees visualize future competitive threats and environmental shifts† (McShane & VonGlinlow, 2008) Effective change requires more than making employees aware of the driving forces. It involves reducing or removing the restraining forces. There are six ways to overcome employee resistance, communication, learning, employee involvement and stress management. American Industrialist Andrew Carnegie once said â€Å"take away my people and soon grass will grow on the factory floor, take away my factories but leave my people and soon we will have a new and better factory. †( Library of Congress, 2009) Organizations are not buildings, machinery or financial assets; they are the people in them. Organizations are human entities, full of life, sometimes fragile, always exciting.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Human Trafficking – Sexual Slavery

The truth is, however, that not every human trafficking case is pulled from a Lima Nesses movie; any sexual enterprise involving foreign immigrants and underage girls regardless of whether or not it is voluntary is considered human trafficking (Baker, 2). In order to rid the world of this vulgar, damaging corporation that directly conflicts with the moral principles of freedom and self-worth, we must concentrate on spreading awareness, eradicating domestic violence and perfecting the law enforcement system.Summary If you were to meet Syrupy Chain, ;a chubby cheeked 18 year-old with an infectious laugh (Pasta,l)†, you would never guess that she was forced to have sex with hundreds of men before the age of 10. At Just seven years old, Chain was sold Into a Cambodia brothel, where she and dozens of other pre-pubescent girls were forced o have sex with at least 20 men a day (Nair) Syrupy was a victim of sexual slavery, like an estimated 12 million others worldwide.The business of b uying and selling humans is a 32 billion dollar global enterprise, and despite being illegal in virtually every country, twenty-seven million people are enslaved worldwide (Pasta, 3). Slavery, especially sexual slavery, deters natural relationships, encourages the objectification of women, prevents evolution from poverty and Isn't necessary for a country's financial or cultural survival. Sexual slavery has Its roots in family violence, power intro and monetary desperation.Though many countries such as Thailand, the unofficial child-sex capital, are attempting to crack down on the sex trade, ineffective law enforcement, financial incentives (the sex tourism industry makes millions a year in Cambodia alone) and lack of motivation prevents the industry from dying out all together (McClellan, 2). From China and Cambodia to Mexico, Sweden and our very own United States, the Sex Trafficking Industry Is rapidly escalating, becoming a major underground enterprise that crosses cultural bound aries and reiterates age- old gender struggles.Though human trafficking in the United States is a wildly ignored and taboo subject, 14,500-17,500 people are trafficked into the US annually and thousands of girls and boys are kidnapped or coerced Into different forms of slavery each year (Baker, 2). The CIA estimates that 30,000-50,000 of these trafficking victims are sex slaves (Landsman, 2) and the MGM, the Negotiation and Conflict Management Group, states that 100,000 children US children are victims of commercialese sex exploitation each year (Baker, 2).Many of these prostituted children are victims of domestic abuse, growing up in broken homes and depending on pimps as father surges. Pimps ensnare such young girls by gaining their trust, supplying the love that was devoid at home and utilizing the girl's new-found dependence to manipulate r Nine typical age AT a sex tracking volt Is plummeting; In ten past most girls were in their late teens or early ass's, but now the average g irl is from 12 to 14 years- old (Landsman, 6).The life of a US prostitute is wildly dangerous and harmful to the development of under-aged girls; the victims are put through strenuous mental and physical abuse by their financially motivated pimps, the recent demand for violent ND aggressive sex causing the occupation to become more damaging than ever (Landsman, 6). Often times, if these girls escape and return to their families, they aren't accepted back into their communities and the girls return to the only home they know – their pimp.Even when offered help by organizations such as GEMS (Girls Education and Mentoring Service), many victims slip back into â€Å"the life† due to their lack of confidence and dependence on their pimp. Because they were forced into the business at such a young age, it's their only way of supporting themselves (Very Young Girls). Each one of these factors prevents American sex slaves from rising to a good life that benefits society and pro ves that damaging effects of the US sex industry.While American trafficking is not as well publicized as its foreign counterparts, the entire enterprise reveals deep rooted issues such as domestic violence and poverty that prohibit demolishing the sex industry. Sex slavery is rampant in Asian countries such as Thailand and Cambodia, resulting in the sexual exploit of underage girls and debt-oriented imprisonment. Prostitution makes up 59-60% of Thailand government budget each year (McClellan, 1), whilst there Asian countries have numbers in similar ranges.Though trafficking laws are in place throughout the cotangent, the poverty and financial desperation of local authorities inhibits the prevention of such issues (McClellan, 4). Unlike America, Asian pimps and brothel owners rarely lure girls into their enterprises using charm or love, but rather prey on needy parents by offering Jobs in the city, a better life or sometimes Just a good deal (Luggage, 2). There are prostitutes in Cam bodia and 35% are minors (Landsman, 4).Boys and girls as young as infants are sold into sex slavery, where they are kept in miniscule, dungeon like rooms with remises of freedom at the completion of their contract. Children are often times forced to have sex dozens of times a day with strangers, burnt, cut and abused at the slightest mention of protest (Landsman, 4). Asian countries place an extremely high value on virginity, believing that intercourse with a virgin perpetuates youth and heals medical ailments (Luggage, 3).Unfortunately, this results in Sais's title as the child sex capital of the world.. The life expectancy of a prostitute in Cambodia is around twenty-eight, while 20% of the girls are HIVE positive, a statistic that cannot be reified since the majority of sex workers never get a blood test (McClellan, 4). The prostitutes, both child and adult, are nothing but commodities; they are so ubiquitous that they have become disposable and often killed when they cease to be useful (McClellan, 2).Due to this, Asia has huge gender imbalances, lack of financial opportunities for half of its people and little chance of rising from third-world status. From pedophilia to squalid conditions and absolute slavery, the Asian sex slavery system is one of the most dangerous and harmful worldwide. Though the Cambodia and Thai sex industry are well publicized in terms of brothels ND local men, sex tourism, â€Å"tourism organized with the primary purpose of facilitating the effecting of a commercial-sexual relationship with a child,† is a largely unreleased student (Song, 1).Every year, tonnages AT adults travel ten globe to sexually exploit children as young as 5 years old, while many more stumble upon such opportunities while traveling for business or pleasure (Nair). According to the International Labor Organization, countries such as Thailand, India and the Philippians report that 2 – 14% of their gross domestic product comes from sex tourism and other related fields (Nair). This horrible industry that includes 2 million children is ubiquitous in beautiful, well-traveled countries with widespread poverty (Song, 2).Young girls with desperate parents and lack of educational opportunities are often tricked or sold into the sex tourism industry with no idea what awaits the (Nair). Another major issue in ending sex tourism is the Internet; sellers and pimps can put online profiles of their victims, while foreign sex tourists can exchange locations, stories and tips (Nair). A mere Google search turns up horrific information on what awaits the average sex tourist in Thailand; meticulous details describing the co's and don't of the Patty Sex Scene.The website describes the dangers of trusting the women, wearing watches, giving them tips or treating them as anything less than whore's, while encouraging the adventurous sex tourist to experiment with gabbros and nude shows (so the buyer â€Å"knows what he's going to get†) and t ake extra cash to compensate for the unavoidable â€Å"sex-crazes† (wry. Mayhap. Com). Deeper exploration into the website reveals details on Soapy Massage Parlors, a Thai Sex Tourism Attraction that involves huge quantities of highly trained, pre-pubescent girls using their bodies to engage in a fantasy world of bubbles and sex Wyandotte. Mom). Though most sex industries remain within a single country o continental region, the sex tourism industry causes conflict between countries and changes the relationships that they would otherwise have had. The entire industry degrades females and children, abuses multicultural boundaries and continues the cycle of gender imbalances. Unlike American and Asian countries, Eastern Europe depends on promises a better future to lure potential victims into the sex trade. It is estimated by European Union Nations that there are over 500,000 women in prostitution in Europe (Kristin).Traffickers use fictional Jobs as models or nannies in the US to lure girls into the system, often times paying their own air fare and giving up their passports. In most cases the women are then held captive in transition countries such as Mexico, waiting to be moved into the United States and sold into sex slavery (Landsman, 2). Prostitution was very rare in the Soviet Union up until about 22 years ago, when the communist government fell and the country was cast into poverty (Landsman, 5). A a result, many young women turned to the prospects available in the US (Landless 2).Though many women were aware that prostitution could be involved in the opportunities offered, the glorified ideas of solicitation presented in movies like Pre Women (a top 10 movie in the area) shielded the truth of a horrid industry (Kristin). Once the girls were bought by a pimp they would have to be â€Å"broken in†. This is terrifying process used to mentally break down the girls' dignity and force them to resign too life of sex slavery. In many cases the child ren are locked in a basement squalid conditions, they are kept cold and starving, and they are beaten and raped their captors.Spherical items are forced down the little girls' throats to retract their gag reflex, and honey is put on John's penises as a training mechanism for girls undo ten age AT / (Linesman, 4) once ten gulls are phonically Ana mentally Drunken down they are ready to be transported to other locations for work (Landsman, 4). European trafficking is especially dangerous due to the unpredictability of victims, the danger it poses to inter-cultural relationships and the images it reiterates of women as second-class citizens.While Eastern European traffickers often kidnap and mislead their victims, Mexican imps, often known as â€Å"Los Lemons†, rely on charm and young women's desperation to find El Norte to lure them into the United States. Though in most other countries pimps work alone or in pairs, Mexican pimps work in larger family groups, selling and exchan ging with other well-known brothels and organizations (Landsman, 3). Los Lemons begin their training at the age of 12, when they are pulled out of school and given a girl of similar age to rape and pimp out.In such a family hierarchy system, the father or grandfather is in charge of the organizational aspects, while older sons and cousins hunt, kidnap and entrap victims (Landsman, 3). Los Lemons wait at bus stops and school dances, befriending young girls and pursuing them as suitors, much like American pimps enamored potential victims (Chin). After the initial introduction period, the results are thoroughly predictable – the girls are drugged, raped and taken to brothels in major cities like Tangoing, Mexico City or the United States (Landsmen, 3).However, these issues are constantly reiterating, as Mexican officials â€Å"see sex trafficking as a U. S. Problem† (Landsman, 4). Over the years, Mexican pimps have taken tips from European traffickers by setting up a sexu al introduction system. Young prostitutes (some of them as young as 4) are kept in underground stalls divided by frayed curtains, mentally abused by women and raped by cheap Johns in 15 minutes intervals for 20 hour a day (Landsman, 4). While the American system relies on simply having girls, Mexicans, like Europeans, depend on emotionally degrading and physically breaking them.Once the girls have completed their training, the most talented' are sold to American pimps or local tourist hot spots (Landsman, 4). Though many countries with prominent sex industries cater to Americans, Mexican slavery is an issue that must be taken seriously without placing he blame on American influence. Though the sex trafficking industry is an old and dangerous system, it can be compensated for through media coverage, careful police work and international policies.From Cambodia and Europe to Mexico and the United States, human trafficking ruins lives, destroys relationships, seals social stereotypes an d inhibits development from poverty. The tradition of women's bodies being traded and sold is a common one, but careful work can prevent it from continuing. Eventually, children will be able to attend school instead of brothels; women in 3rd world countries will e able to have Jobs and countries will be able to develop past a world where violence, trafficking and crime are the main forms of finances. Argue Prostitution and sexual slavery are common motifs in modern culture; from Grand Theft Auto and Blockbuster action films to dingy street corners and clothing styles, the sex trade is ever present in our world. Though most people accept that prostitution is wrong, it is hard to define why. The fact is that all people have the right to be free from slavery. The concept that one human can be owned by another disagrees with the principles that our country was founded on. Secondly, the sex industry is degrading to women and prevents the enslaved from developing as individuals.Though it may seem like a line straight from Opera's daily talk show, the truth is that all people have the right to confidence and a positive self-image. In reality, sex slavery prevents the development of individuals and societies due to its conflict with the basic moral principles of freedom and self worth. Among the undeniable human rights imposed on all people is the right to freedom. All over the world, millions of men and women are being denied their essential right to freedom and being forced to work against their will.In the Declaration of Independence, the fundamental document that our country was founded on, the writers state that â€Å"†¦ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness Professor). † A huge flaw in the moral makeup of the sex industry is that, among the unalienable rights every person is granted are â€Å"life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Such goals cannot be procured through the life of a slave, for whom the idea of pursuing their win dreams is almost as outlandish as the notion of freedom. Freedom and the triumph it brings are hugely important to the success of a nation. When people are given the creative license to think and thrive without being subordinate to another individual, society can develop new ideas and have a more successful population. While Socrates once said, an â€Å"unexamined life is not worth living† (Rosenberg, 21).Individuals who do not even have the means to examine their own lives have little chance to flourish. Therefore, the sex trade directly contrasts with the fundamental unman right of freedom and should be eliminated. Self esteem, defined as a realistic respect for yourself (dictionary. Com), is an essential right that all humans should have. Part of having a devoted sense of self worth is having the confidence to demand your rights, make your own choices about your body and stand strong in the face of adversity.The sexual, physical and mental manipulations of others, practices that are routine in the sex industry, are major catalysts in self esteem issues of under-age girls such as not valuing their bodies as their own and viewing them self as subordinate. In fact, the entire industry depends alertly on ten velum's Initially to anemia wages Ana Treetop, consulting themselves to unfair conditions and inhumane practices. Pimps repeatedly beat and rape girls until their self confidence is entirely shattered and they are ready to work, ensuring that their internal respect does not intervene with subordination.Confidence is key to achieving goals, continuing education and pursuing happiness, and as Robert Collier said, mirror chances of success in any undertaking can always be measured by your belief in yourself (Coppersmith). † People who achieve aret, hat trust their instincts and push boundaries ge t much further in the world than those that are ambivalent about their life and don't believe in themselves. Unfortunately, the sex industry and it's extremely merciless customs prevent girls from overcoming boundaries and burdens, their agony, and thriving as individuals.Just as lack of liberty prevents the development of a society, it is crucial to the success of society that girls are free, confident and able to thrive In reality, sex slavery prevents the development of individuals and societies due to its conflict with the basic moral principles of freedom and the right to self worth. Every day, millions of people are denied their freedom and fundamental rights, but unable to take charge and fight due to their depleted sense of self worth. This vicious cycle perpetuates sex slavery and prevents individuals from developing and reaching their aret, or full potential.The huge toll sex slavery is taking on the economies of various countries worldwide demonstrates the magnitude of su ch a crisis, and issues a silent plea of help to the general public. Eliminating the sex trade is an ambitious mission that may seem impossible but is so crucial to societal success that it cannot be swept under the rug. Though there are many sides of the human trafficking crisis, it is important to concentrate on three major categories; domestic violence, media and law enforcement. Domestic violence prohibits the development of self confidence and provides an initial incentive to Join the sex industry.Secondly, an unknown problem cannot be solved and it is thus vitally important to publicize the truths that ignored by the general public. Finally, employing a politically correct and moral legal system that prosecutes Johns and provides support for victims of sex slavery helps eradicate the remaining trafficking inns. By paying attention to family life, spreading information on the sex industry and utilizing proper legal systems the sex industry will be well on its way to abolition. Domestic violence, ever-present in poverty stricken regions of the US, is a huge contributor to the sex trafficking crisis.Just as self-worth aids success, women with low esteem due to family friction are much more likely to fall prey to pimps or manipulative men. Domestic abuse, which can be categorized as physical, sexual, mental or neglectful ill-treatment, drastically alters an individual's abilities to thrive. Common side effects of childhood abuse are often â€Å"fear, anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, inappropriate sexual behavior, poor self esteem, tendency toward substance abuse and difficulty with close relationships† (Farley) and thus inhibit the victim's ability to thrive.Individuals who cannot form normal relationships, who abuse substances, are sexually inappropriate and depressed tend to fall easy to pimps who provide relationship substitutes for such unstable individuals. After all, 95% of teenaged prostitutes were abused as children (Farley) and 60 milli on survivors live worldwide (Farley). I nuns, It Is crucial to laminate mostly violence Ana supply potential victims with the skills to cope with adversity and the self-confidence to stand up for themselves.An active social service system is essential to eliminating domestic violence; having a system to check in on children and families and place them in safe foster homes are necessary to end domestic violence. After all, 80% of girls in the foster system are sexually abused (CAW, Sex Trafficking) and attention to such placements helps prevent potential victims from entering the cycle and developing substance abuse issues, fear, anxiety and relationship problems.Another important step is training teachers to recognize the signs of abuse such as excessive sadness, sudden social anxiety, strange bruises and odd parental encounters (Helped). If teachers educate about family life in school and update social services on troubled children, potential victims can be removed from toxic envir onments before the develop the characteristics that aid the sex industry and prevent them for attaining a normal life. Finally, mandatory support groups for victims of domestic ill- treatment help girls mend their wounds and learn to develop the confidence the need to thrive.Overall, the keys to ending domestic violence lie in developing a comprehensive social service system and paying attention to victims who may need help. A huge obstruction to the demolition of the sex industry is the lack of media coverage the crisis receives. When a hundred people were asked details about human trafficking, 70% knew it existed but very few knew anything else, let alone that it's present in the US (CAW, Violence at Home). The truth is, sex slavery cannot be stopped until the American people are tuned into the reality of such a gruesome enterprise.Honestly, media and public speakers have a huge impact on the average American – A Million Little Pieces, the drug-addiction memoir of James Fre y, had hardly BE SPECIFIC sold 10 copies when Opera featured it in her monthly book club and before the end of the year the sales averaged $3. 8 million (Wyatt). Regardless of the legitimacy of the novel, it brought massive amounts of publicity to the drug crisis and was a pioneer in addiction honesty. In reality, media proves time and again to be a priceless tool that cannot be underestimated in the quest to end trafficking.Though television often portrays prostitutes as manipulative temptresses who sell homeless for their own financial gain, the truth is that most are frightened, underage girls who are sold, coerced or forced into the sex industry. In reality, the average new prostitute is 13 years old (Landsman) and 90% of prostituted women are managed by pimps (Beveling Gibe, 1987). And while that 10% of women may appear to work willingly, the truth is that the universal abuse of sex workers proves the fact that â€Å"sex slaves† and prostitutes† are often one in th e same.It is thus crucial that we utilize media to help end the sex crisis, initially by correcting the modern mage of prostitution in film and television. Instead of portraying them as willing, the reality of the sex industry should be shown in movies and TV shows alike. If CNN and BBC broadcasted sex trafficking cases and let the public know that many prostitutes are underage and working against their will, the entire enterprise would be more likely to condone? In addition to this, it is important that an overview of sex slavery be included in the high school Sex De classes.According to Benedict Berne, speaker at the Conference of World Affairs at CUE Boulder, the world should get to a place where ten not AT Dulling sex Is almost as Torrent as ten not AT segregating cocoons Day race† (CAW, Human Trafficking). Finally, it is crucial to supply media coverage on the truths of street life and ensure teenagers have a realistic perspective on the ordeal. Sadly, modern misconceptio ns that portray the street as a good life, causing an estimated 1. 6 million kids to run away from their troubled families (Determinate).Runaways act as a huge feeder to the sex industry, and 1/3 of all runaways turn to prostitution and pornography for survival within the first 48 hours (Thinkers). In order to demolish the sex industry, it is crucial to publicize the realities of sex slavery, develop in-school programs to spread awareness and prevent the runaway epidemic from increasing. Law enforcement plays a key role in the elimination of sex slavery. Even if every humanitarian group does all in their power to console SP victims and spread awareness, the trafficking system cannot be thoroughly eradicated without a comprehensive law enforcement system.The modern misconceptions that were previously discussed cause law enforcement officials to prosecute the victims and ignore the true perpetrators. Many people, including cops, see prostitution as consensual whilst the majority of su ch workers are underage and coerced into the business. This leads to unresponsive law enforcement systems that concentrate on the wrong aspects of the sex industry and prevent the admonishment of prostitution. A former victim of sex slavery, Rosetta Minified, reported that â€Å"cops didn't help, when they busted me with Johns they told the guys to ‘get the hell out of there' and put cuffs on me and laughed at me.They called me a bitchy and ‘a disease ridden crack head†(Hunter, 2). To avoid such miscommunication it is crucial that police are properly introduced to he sex industry and given strict orders on how to treat those under suspicion of solicitation. Teaching introduction courses to sexual slavery and solicitation would help police prosecute the real criminals who perpetuate the sex industry and prevent demolition. Secondly, it is vital that the protection laws for underage prostitutes are enforced and mandatory therapy programs need to be put in place for the girls to be enrolled in.The programs, which vary in details between countries, tend to orient around teaching the girls basic skills and redeveloping their self-esteem. In a Cambodia clinic for underage sex slaves, the recovery process revolves around â€Å"the girls living at the center, which is run by a former victim of sex slavery named Somali Mama, and attending a nearby school, as well as learning Job skills like sewing and hairstyling† (Nair). If local authorities require therapy programs for ex-prostitutes, it will help portray them as victims and prevent their re-entry into the business.Finally, establishing a system that protects underage sex slaves from being prosecuted is vital to ending the sex trade system. The fact that a twelve year-old having sex with a hairy year-old man is considered rape but if money is exchanged the girl, who would otherwise be considered a victim, is thrown in Jail is preposterous (Landsman, 21). Due to this situation's immoral param eters a Safe Harbor system was created under which the purchase of sex is illegal while the sale is not. The Safe Harbor act, originating in Sweden but spreading quickly worldwide, proved to be very successful.It has now spread to US states such as New York and Pennsylvania (Nair). Because of this, more legal concentration is put on prosecuting the Johns rather than the victims. Therefore, a major asset in ending the sex trade industry is through careful law enticement, tannery programs Ana creating a legal system Tanat prosecutes ten buyers of sex. Regardless of the state or country in question, worldwide sex trafficking is a major international issue that prevents the development of societies both financially and culturally.Until the sex industry crisis common knowledge to the average person, domestic violence is drastically reduced and the law enforcement system is effective and legitimate, the entire enterprise cannot be ended. This will give governments the accessory means to d eal with trafficking rings that pop up in the near future. Like Polio, small pox and other eradicated diseases, the sex industry will be simple keep under control even when new trafficking rings begin to develop.The sizeable goal of ending the sexual exploitation can be achieved with persistence, will power and motivation of the people. In order to rid the world of the human trafficking system, a damaging corporation that directly conflicts with the moral principles of freedom and self-worth, we must concentrate on spreading awareness, eradicating domestic violence and perfecting the law enforcement system. Sexual human trafficking, a multi-cultural enterprise whose financial value ranks in the billions and for whom violence and abuse are the norm, is a hugely undervalued crisis in America.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Assignment one Organisations and environment Essay

Discuss how an organisation’s competitive advantage can be enhanced with the introduction of new technology. In this day and age with almost all markets being highly competitive it is at top of businesses agendas to ensure they have a firm competitive advantage. 1 .The term competitive advantage is the ability gained through attributes and resources to perform at a higher level than others in the same industry or market. If a business can ensure that they have a competitive advantage it enables them to be one step ahead of their competition, this is curtail for a business’s success especial given the economic climate as it stands. One of the main examples of competitive advantage is pricing/cost. We see these most frequently in supermarkets, as most firms compete for the lowest prices this is because their consumers all want to find the best price for the product they want to buy. We also see this in other markets as consumers always look for a better offer therefore th e firm with the lowest prices generally has the higher demand. Another example is quality. When consumers look for witch product or serves to purchase quality is key element witch influence their diction. We see this on the high street time and time again as consumers consistently go to big brand names such as apple because they know that quality will be ensured in their purchase. As a result of this apple or able to boost prices and in turn create a higher profit margin for products. From these simple examples we can see how important competitive advantage is because of the additional finical gain it can bring to a business. These examples are basic as a competitive advantage can come in many forms as long as it befits a business and their competitors do not have it. A competitive advantage can prove extremely important to a business, for this reason it is just as important to maintain the advantage and enhance it if possible. One way to do this is by the introduction of new technology. If a firm is willing to invest in new technology it can be seen as a competitive advan tage in itself. This is because the technology is brand new and competitors do not have it yet. This gives the firm a unique advantage and will in turn attract customers. The introduction of new technology can also be used to enhance a firm’s competitive advantage. If we take the manufacturing industry as an example the firm’s competitive advantage may be there product and the way that it functions and the price that it is made for. If the firm then  introduces some new technology to its production line (machinery) their competitive advantage may be enhanced as the quality of the product is now better due to the new technology. This will make customer chose that firm over its competitors. The introduction of the new machinery may mean that less staff is now needed in that area of the production line. This in turn will enhance the firm’s competitive advantage as unit costs for the product will become lower due to the reduction of staff. This means that firm can charge less than their competitor’s causing a higher demand for their product. Another example of how firm can use new technology to enhance their competitive advan tage is in the researching of consumer information. A firm can only be successful in the long run and have a competitive advantage if it knows their consumers’ needs and wants. From this information the firm can devolve a product portfolio and brand that matches the consumer’s needs and wants, in turn giving them a massive competitive advantage. An example of this could be Tesco. Tesco are using new technology in order to help them understand their consumers more and in turn enhance their competitive advantage. They have done this by introducing their club card scheme. This is a reward scheme for customers as an incentive to make them more loyal to their supermarket; however this also offers Tesco’s the opportunity to see exactly what their customers are buying how often and at what times. This is very useful as it enables them to develop sales strategies and obtain the correct products to complement their consumers’ needs and wants. This will then improve customer loyalty and in the long run make more money. This is another example of how a firm can you new technology (in this case a database and swipe card) in order to enhance the firm overall success and competitor advantage. 2. To gain competitive advantage a business strategy of a firm manipulates the various resources over which it has direct control and these resources have the ability to generate competitive advantage. This quote reinforces the idea that firms are able. This quote again highlights the fact that in order for a firm to enhance their competitive advantage they need to look at the resources in their direct control and look at how to manipulate or enhance them in order to give them a better competitive advantage. One of the most popular and most successful ways of doing this is by the introduction of new technology to a business. A common example of this found in the retail industry is stock control. A resource under the  direct control of all retailers in on the high street is their own inventory/stock. Over the last ten year there has been a massive change in the way businesses handle the problem of stock control. Instead of the now old fashioned way of stock ordits and counts, most retailer now have a database system which shows all their stock including how much they have on the shop floor as well as in back-up storage. They also know when they have sold any given product and can be told by a computer alert that stock needs to be replenished on the shop floor, or that stock should be order as they have ran out. This system combined with the JIT (just in time strategy of stock control) has lead retailer to be more efficient saving money and time and overall improving their competitive advantage. Other ways that businesses can use new technology to enhance their competitive advantage is via their websites. Many firms underestimate the value of using their websites to gain significant competitive advantage in their given markets. With firm simply using their websites as a means to explain what their business is and show off their product portfolio. However if businesses invest in new web design technology they may be able to enhance your distribution networks. This may include using the web portal to enhance logistics, create new marketing channels (for example affiliate channels) or provide better or faster product access for customers. It is imperative that businesses use new technology in order to change and grow as a business as well as improving its competitive advantage. If this does not happen the business may be felt behind as the market progress and grows with new technology along with their customers. A great example of this could be Woolworth with left the high stre et in 2009 leaving 27,000 people unemployed. Woolworth downfall lied in its inability to change and grow with consumer demands. 3. Professor Alan Wilson, from the city’s Strathclyde Business School, said one reason Woolworths did not survive was because it didn’t offer the quality of some other stores. â€Å"And it couldn’t offer the prices that the discount stores such as Primark, Lidl and others could actually offer,† This ultimately shows the impact of what can happened to businesses that do not change or put enthuses into new technology in order to enhance their competitor advantage. Although I have mentioned many examples of how new technology can be used to enhance a firm’s competitive advantage there is some disadvantages when it comes to the introduction of  new technology. Firstly any firm that is considering the introduction of new technology will first have think about the initial investment. New technology is never cheap and can be quite expensive and time consuming to install. T herefore businesses most think carefully about if the investment is worth it and will it pay for itself in the long run. Also the introduction of new technology can bring de-motivation into the workforce. For example in the case that I mention early about manufacturing firms where staff could be laid off because of the introduction of new technology, this would a prime example of staff being de-motivated as they are worried about their job and think they could be the next one to go. However even though there are some small drawbacks new technology is still a very important factor when it comes to the enhancement of a firm’s competitive advantage and should be looked into carefully by all firms that want to be successful and grow. References; 1. Christensen and Fahey 1984, Kay 1994, Porter 1980 cited by Chacarbaghi and Lynch 1999, p. 45 2. Reed and Fillippi 1990 cited by Rijamampianina 2003, p. 362 3. Professor Alan Wilson thoughts on Woolworths- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7811187.stm