Tuesday, April 2, 2019

The Internal And External Validity And Reliability Psychology Essay

The Internal And out-of-door Validity And Reliability Psychology EssayThis chapter contains a description of the seek regularityology proposed for this memorize, including a restatement of the purpose and investigate questions. The chapter is nonionized with categories pertaining to the instrumentation, selective in urinateation collection, search methodology, honest concerns, and explanation of the statistical procedures apply for a descriptive quantitative analysis. The purpose of this issue is to examine the opinions and attitudes of the carbon monoxide gas mental health inst solelys clinical staff regarding the perceived honour of the Crisis barroom Institutes peaceable Crisis discussion Program purposed to manage violence in the hospitals in tolerant treatment settings. This go out(a) be accomplished through the expenditure of a contemplate designed to value the perceptions of those charged with providing send out c atomic number 18 to the mentally ill population of the Institute regarding the enduringness of the Crisis Prevention Institutes Nonviolent Crisis Intervention Program to prevent and manage violent behavior. Designing an attitudinal purview in order to quantify results female genitalia be a challenging depute depending on what is creationness measured and selecting the appropriate estimate methodology. Most forms of assessment test large sample groups, with divergent sub-groups to contrast and compargon in terms of slays (Thorndike Thorndike-Christ, 2009). The exit areas in the look that get out be employ for this assessment are of a non-comparative nature, meaning that each head is plated independently of the differents as foreign to comparing them to each other. The come utilise in the scurf go forth indicate the coitus slur of power points, but non the order of magnitude of difference surrounded by them. With respect to these parameters and limitations, this render away entrust pay the stare scores of the participants, along with calculations as to their score and central tendency. In addition, inferences pass on be make as to factors that whitethorn flip influenced the scoring choices made by the respondents.In the fields cogitate to education and social science, search exploring the attitudes, faceings, and lived experiences of the respondents is a good deal conducted through the aim of a slew methodology. Research data ga in that respectd in this manner drive out be categorized into four types measuring masters containing different film that determines the method of statistical analysis (Stevens, 1946). Perhaps the simplest though least statistically descriptive measurement scale is termed a tokenish scale, in which a micturate or material body is assigned to the value of the data for identifying purposes. Numbers apply in a nominal scale run through no particular order, magnitude, or signifi trickce in value other than for the purpose of id entification, and though this scale of measurement yields little in terms of detailed statistical information, there is discount authorisation for error secondary to the simplicity its construction (Stevens, 1946).In contrast, an no. matter scale is a take aim of measurement that does proffer a differentiation and value in the numerical assignment (Stevens, 1946). determine can be determined by the ranking the assigned metrical composition in either an change magnitude or decreasing fashion, dependent on the design and purpose of the explore instrument. An example of this would be 5 purpose ordinal scale used for an assessment of pain utilizing an increasing design. The number 1 would indicate the least amount of pain experienced, with the number 5 ascribed to the highest take of pain experienced and the add up in amid reflecting differences in experiential magnitude. Although in this example the aim of pain would be indicated by the numerical assignment, the diffe rence in the poesy in the ranking would non necessarily be equal or precise, and the differences between any 2 judge numbers would non indicate a express interval. Thus, an ordinal scale may be considered to be a more civilise method for measurement than a nominal scale, yet be less precise for in providing particular information in terms of magnitude than with other aims of measurement such(prenominal) as interval or proportion scales.Researchers seeking this type of information might use an interval scale, as there are equal spaces between any cardinal determine which will entrust more precise data than with a nominal or ordinal scale. As the distance between any two positions on an interval scale is of a known size, this method allows for the use of arithmetic ope proportionalityns, and the scale might be used for measurements pertaining to temperature, dollars, out to for, nor anything in which there is a transport measurable quantity with equality in units (S tevens, 1946). As with temperature, zero does not represent the absolute lowest value, and hence inferences regarding the ratios of data cannot be made as an interval scale does not have a true value of zero (Thorndike Thorndike-Christ, 2009). A level of measurement that does possess a true value of zero and has the prop of ratios has many similarities to an interval scale, and is called a ratio scale. The corresponding ratios on the scale have the uniform meaning and the value of zero absolute, as in a measurement of height and weight (Thorndike Thorndike-Christ, 2009). The ratio scale can provide more specific information than the other levels of measurement however, its complexness can be a factor in terms of the potential for research error. All four of these levels of measurement can be used singly and at times conjunctively in the design of a rank scale instrument dependent on the type of research being conducted. at that placefore, the selection of a particular level of measurement is a sound concern for the researcher, as the success or failure of a research endeavor may lie in making an appropriate choice, as the subsequent types statistical analyses for each are varied and differentiated.Likert and Likert-Type Rating ScalesThe level of measurement most appropriate for this quantitative statistical field of study is an ordinal scale. As the localise of this study is on staff members attitudes, trying to figure subjective and what might be considered qualitative data into quantitative measurements requires a method for categorizing responses. At the same time, business must be accustomed in considering whether a particular scale item can be measured in terms of the distances between any two numbers in the rating scale. In 1932 Rensis Likert created and developed a methodology often used to assess ghosts, attitudes, and opinions by providing a rating scale grammatical construction that addressed this concern (Likert, 1932). This method h as widely utilized and adapted in many venues including education, social science, trade, and a variety of other applications with falsifiable research evidence that confirms its reliability and soundity (Abdel-Khalek, 1998 Chow Winzer, 1992 Maurer Andrews, 2000). This evidence further suggests that rating bias is reduced and the reliability of the rating is highest when a 5 or 7 point or higher rating scale is used (Stennet, 2002). As a result, a typical Likert scale typically has 5 to 7 categories with 3 or 4 point scales often considered excessively few, particularly when parametric statistical methods are applied (Garson, 2002). The categories in a 5-point Likert scale is often coded as 1- potently Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 -Neutral, 4 Agree, and 5 Strongly Agree, with percentage and nonparametric statistics used for analysis. The simplest form of Likert scale is analyze in a summative manner with the mean value of a Likert-item put up by adding the number of responses t o a Likert-item and dividing it by the number of points used for the rating scale. Whether or not Likert scales can or should be analyzed using parametric versus nonparametric tests is a source of current controversy within the statistical community (Acock Martin, 1974). Efforts to quantify responses using parametric tests have led to an adaptation in scale design from the unequivocal Likert model, to what is termed a Likert-type scale (Clason Dormody, 1994).A Likert-type scale differs from a Likert scale in the statement questions being singular in the response alternatives, allowing for the data to be treated as interval scale data for parametric statistical analysis (Brown, 2000 Clason Dormody, 1994 Cliff, 1984 Hodgson, 2003). With this border on, the mean score of Likert-type data from each question or statement could be compared using a t -test, though factors cogitate to data distribution, sample size, and number of rating choices would inquire to be considered (Clason Dormody, 1994). This shift of ordinal rating scale data into that of an interval scale for the use of parametric statistical methods underscores the controversy identified by Acock Martin, 1974). As previously set forth in the levels of measurement, ordinal scales are ranked with no specific measurable difference or distance between the numerical categories, and statistical calculations used to determine the mean, standard deviation, and molds of correlation may result in inaccurate research findings (Har most Gatti, 2001 Miller, 1998). In the classic Likert scale design numbers to provide order and ranking, but since the actual distance and origin between the numbers is unknown, thus it cannot be scored in an additive manner palliate to indicate the central tendency and range of the responses (Dawes, 2008). This supports the contention that non-parametric test should be used for a quantitative analysis, though it could be argued there are methods that would be more stati stically accurate and valid, such as ordinal regression techniques (McCullagh, 1980). Furthermore, the calculation of the mean scores for the ordinal data would need to be established in order to be statistically valid in a analysis using parametric tests (Trochim, 2006), whereas those arguing against this approach contend that the median but not the mean can help whizself as a measure of central tendency (Trochim, 2006). For this study, the calculations for will leave off the mean, though the mode, median, and range of the score distribution will be presented.selective information compendA descriptive quantitative research methodology will be used for this study through the use of a stick to that was designed to collect data from the direct care providers at the carbon monoxide amiable health Institute. A survey methodology is often used for data collection from a specific population or from a sample of the population (Robson, 1993). Within the realm of psychology, surveys are used for company data about individuals, groups and system of ruless, and larger social networks (Rossi, Wright, and Anderson, 1983). Most Americans have participated in nearly form of survey in an either online or in a paper format whether in an educational, social science, political, or marketing research context. Many organizations have employees participate in satisfaction surveys, and surveys in general have become a sort of social barometer for monitor the publics attitudes and opinions. Often surveys target a specific population, with a sample survey focusing on subgroups determined by a variety of factors such as gender, race, geography, political beliefs etc. dependent on the nature and focus of the subject areas studied (Rossi, Wright and Anderson, 1983).The advantages and strengths of using a survey methodology for aggregation information are that they can be of a qualitative or quantitative design, and be slow administered to gather information quickly and stin gily (Leary , 1995). In the past, this was frequently accomplished through the use of paper and send out surveys, with the latter method used particularly when large populations were being surveyed. With advances in communication and digital technology, surveys can be conduct via electronic formats as varied as those associated with phones and computers. Other frequently used research methodologies such as personal interviews can be more time and damage intensive than with the use of a survey instrument, and anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents can be more difficult to control. These factors strongly influenced the researchers choice of a descriptive research methodology utilizing a survey instrument to assess the cobalt psychical Health institutes clinical employees attitudes, feelings, and lived experiences related to the crisis intervention reading program the organization has utilized for 25 years. Few attitudinal surveys have been conducted regarding this speci fic subject area, and a check up on of the literature did not reveal any studies concerning the long-term stupor of this type of learning on the culture of a mental puff upness organization.The cobalt Mental Health Institutes 2008 Safety SurveyAnother central factor that sponsored this researchers interest in designing and administering an attitudinal survey was a review of a preventative survey conducted at the Colorado Mental Health Institute in 2008. The Colorado Mental Health Institute currently uses a survey methodology for exit interviews with clients that are discharging from the facility, as well as surveys designed to gauge employees job satisfaction. The Institute has only conducted one survey that concerned the subject area of crisis intervention instruct being focused on in the proposed study for this dissertation. The purpose of the survey was say thusly In light of the high number of patient to staff lash outs in fiscal year 07-08, the hospital focused the a nnual ill Mode Effects and Analysis on the Management of Assaultive Patients, and assembled a workgroup to perform the analysis. The hospital director suggested a staff survey specific to perceptions of safety to be done as part of the work on reducing assaults (Colorado Mental Health Institute Safety Survey, 2008). Although the survey provided somewhat interesting results, there was no data regarding the internal and validity of the survey instrument. Thus, the results are highly questionable in terms of these factors, and the survey cannot be considered quantitatively accurate, though it can provide useful information for growth a more scientifically accurate instrument by analyzing its incorrect design. It is important to note that in 2008 the Colorado Mental Health Institute had eight treatment units as opposed to the four that currently provide service for adults, with the closure of geriatric, adolescent, and children services in recent years.2008 Survey methodological ana lysisThere were approximately 240 surveys distributed to the direct care staff members, with 224 surveys submitted by participants indicating a 93% return rate. The survey focused on the entirenessd responses of nurses, Mental Health Clinicians, and Public Safety Officers (security) as the providers with the most direct care contact. The survey used a 5 point Likert scale shown beneath duck 1.12345Strongly DisagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly AgreeThe safety survey was comprised of four questionsI feel safe working(a) with patients on my unit.I feel safe when I float to another unit.Crisis concern training is useful/helpful in preparing me to deal effectively with provoke and escalated patients.I feel adequately trained to deal with offensive patients.There was one unrestricted question, asking What further training do you feel would be beneficial to prepare you to work with the miscellaneous patient populations at the Colorado Mental Health Institute and the assault jeopar dizes they present? duck 2. Colorado Mental Health Institute Safety Survey, 2008.The survey presented tables illustrating findings specific to each treatment unit similar to the one above. They are not allowd in this study for the sake of brevity, however, it is important to note that there was some variation between the different populations responding to this survey and a slight difference between the aggroups and disciplines. These differences were small enough to lend credence to the aggregate results. Overall, the highest scored variable was I feel adequately trained to deal with assaultive patients at 3.96. The lowest scored variable was I feel safe when I float to another unit, at 3.21. CMT is useful/helpful in preparing me registered at a middle value at 3.21. All of the scores ranged between neutral and agree, and appear to have been derived using a summative method. The avocation tables further illustrate these findings (Colorado Mental Health Institute Safety Survey, 2008)Table 3.Table 4.There were only twenty responses to the open-ended question, What further training do you feel would be beneficial to prepare you to work with the various patient populations at the Colorado Mental Health Institute and the assault risks they present? Some of the responses did not specifically address training, for instance some(prenominal) respondents said they needed more staff. Other respondents asked for training specific to patient populations, age group, and diagnoses. Several respondents stated that there should be an orientation to any units before floating (i.e. working on unfamiliar units). In addition, some respondents felt that they just needed more training, or more practice.Analysis of the 2008 Safety SurveyConsidering that this survey uses a 5 point scale the variable indicating 3.21 when employees float might have to do with the reaction of working in a different treatment setting with patients, staff, and conditions with which the employee is un familiar. The 3.96 rating ascribed to feeling adequately trained is relatively high, though there is a disparity when contrasted with the 3.21 rating of the perception of crisis prudence training being useful. The fact that all the readings are neutral or higher would support the contention found in the literature review that some form of crisis management training is more beneficial and preferable to having none at all. The middle score for crisis management training and the tenor of some of the individual comments suggest a performance gap with regards to the training process. This may have had to do with the crisis management training approach, the amount of practice and experience an employee has with using the techniques, or the assessment methods utilized to evaluate employee competency. However, these inferences are merely found on think over as the reliability and validity of the research instrument was not established. In addition, using only four Likert-items the survey design seems too limited in scope to gather a comprehensive overview of the employees attitudes and opinions. Therefore, the results are subject to interpretation, lacking in specificity and clarity, and cannot be considered as valid and reliable empiric evidence.Data Analysis Methods for the Proposed SurveyThe data analysis for the proposed survey for this study will begin by examining the surveys for correctness and completeness, and then numerically secret writing the responses into a database in the PASW-18 software (Predictive Analysis Software) and performing an analysis of descriptive responses. Surveys that are incomplete will be were discarded from the analysis, and the frequency tables and descriptive statistics will display the results germane(predicate) to answering the research questions. As described previously, the calculations will exclude the mean, though the mode, median, and range of the score distribution will be presented. A Chi-square test will conducted to determine if a kin exists between frequencies, although it will not indicate the strength or controlling/negative direction of the relationship. This is consistent with standard statistics guidelines for using the non-parametric tests that will be used in this study as opposed to parametric tests for as Jamieson (2004) advises, the appropriate illative statistics for ordinal data are those employing non-parametric tests, such as chi-squared, Spearmans Rho, or the Mann-Whitney U-test1 because parametric tests require data of interval or ratio level (p. 2113). As the numbers in the survey that will be assigned to Likert-items fall into the ordinal measurement scale, the descriptive statistics will include a mode or median for central tendency and frequencies for variability, and the inferential non-parametric tests will follow Jameisons (2004) recommendations, including Spearman s Rho to detect linear relationships and Kendalls tau-b for any increasing or decreasing relationship b etween the Likert scale questions.Data assemblyCrisis intervention training is mandated for those staff members at the Colorado Mental Health Institute that provide direct care for clients residing in inpatient settings. In addition, those members in the Institutes administration that oversee this care are also mixed in biannual trainings. Therefore, the sample population will consist of 210 clinical staff members, with the surveys distributed in the upcoming training review for the clinical staff members at the Institute. Although attendance for this training is mandated for employees, it will be made give the axe that participation in the survey is voluntary, with the anonymity of the participants made clear to addressing the issues regarding confidentiality. The respondents will be assured that the survey is unidentified and confidential, though they will be given the opportunity to provide information regarding their respective disciplines, years of service, level of educati on, and gender. Once the data has been collected, the results will be recorded and statistically analyzed using PASW-18 software. Prior to the distribution of the surveys during training review, the purpose and importance of the study will be announced in each of the treatment units team meetings, and posted for all clinical staff members via the Institutes intranet e-mail service.Research Questions/Hypotheses_____ Describes specific research questions and hypotheses (where appropriate) that_____ Are clear and succinct_____ Are congruent with the tale of Problem_____ Are answerable/testable_____ Correspond to the number of variables of interest_____ establish hypotheses that correspond to research questions_____ Are clearly stated_____ Are open-ended (not yes/no questions)Population and SampleThe sampling frame for the survey consists of 210 members of the Institutes direct care staff, whose treatment teams multidisciplinary structure are comprised of management staff, nurses, soc ial workers, psychiatrists, psychologists, sanative recreation specialists, occupational therapists and mental health clinicians. Although these disciplines function within a team context, there are differences in terms of power and military position, as well as their amount of direct client care. Examples of these differences in lay are the administrators, psychologists, and psychiatrists that comprise the upper echelon within the teams, with middle managers functioning as liaisons between the lower ranking team members and those higher up in the organization. The social workers on the team have a middling status with regards to power and prestige with nurses and mental health clinicians representing the lowest status with the sterling(prenominal) amount of patient contact, though having the least contact with the hospital administration. Although this know factor is interesting from an organizational point of view, it is even more relevant in terms of the study as those staff members having the most direct contact with clients are the most likely to encounter and intervene in violent situations occurring on the inpatient units.Ethical ConcernsThere are ethical concerns inherent in any form of research study, particularly those involving the use of human subjects. To address these, procedures for protecting confidential and anonymity in data collection, analysis, reporting, and storage need to be developed and described. The researcher must be competent to perform the research procedures in order to reduce the risk of causing harm to human subjects, and the reputation of the sponsoring organization as well as the organization were the study is being conducted (Welman et al., 2005182). For this proposed study, the researcher has completed the coursework for the doctoral Program in Organizational Psychology at the University of the Rockies. This course of study has been grounded in the orientation and practice of conducting research, utilizing different ki nds of research methodologies, undergoing training relative to conducting legal, ethical, and appropriate research procedures, and applying qualitative and quantitative analysis in a variety of projects under the tutelage of qualified instructors at the doctoral level of education. There are a number of safeguards implemented by the University the Rockies to promise that ethical concerns are addressed in an appropriate manner, including a compulsion that the student completes two courses related exclusively to proper conduct and methodology in the research process, as well as the ethical research guidelines that need to be understood and followed. Throughout this training, the importance of the researchers work needing to be authentic and built upon his or hers own ideas have been emphasized, citing the use of other peoples ideas and data to avoid plagiarism. In addition, it has been made clear that providing data that is falsified or misleading is inappropriate and unethical. To ensure appropriate ethical standards are followed, student researchers at the University the Rockies are supervised by a committee of tether psychologists, one serving as the committee chairman who works closely with the student. Finally, if the committee supports and approves the research proposal, it is reviewed by the Universitys Research Review Board and institutional Review Board to ensure that the proposed study is original, contributes to the body of work in the field of psychology, and is held to the highest ethical standards.Factors related to the fairness of the proposed survey pose some ethical considerations. It is important that respondents understand the language used in the survey, and efforts have been made to make sure that each item is clear and easily understood. The specificity and clarity of the survey items was tested in the pilot study to assess if the respondents knowledgeable in the subject area interpreted each item in the intended way, and that this inte ntion is made clear. The survey items are of a relatively simple construction reviewing concepts revisited frequently end-to-end the training process. Efforts have been made to design a survey that meets the validity and reliability standards discussedThe scuttle of ethical concerns arising for the respondents in this proposed study are reduced secondary to the anonymous and confidential nature of the survey and that the previously, and the survey will be conducted with the same time parameters and conditions for all participants. voluntary participants being surveyed are employees as opposed to the Institutes clientele. Nevertheless, individuals participating in the survey may question the viability of keeping this information confidential, and worry that an honest and full disclosure of their views and feelings regarding the subject area may negatively impact their status within the organization. Efforts will be made to neutralize this factor by giving the respondents an accurat e description of the study, and pointing out the potential benefits for the organization by improving the welfare and safety the Colorado Mental Health Institutes clients, as well as those charged with the function of providing their care. The results of the study will be made available to all members of the Colorado Mental Health Institute, including any results that are associated with researcher error.InstrumentationThe survey proposed for this study was designed to gather data based on the proposed research questions, and provide information to make appropriate conclusions and inferences based on empirical data. The instrument was designed to measure each respondents opinions, attitudes, lived experiences regarding the perceived value and effectiveness of the Crisis Prevention Institutes Nonviolent Crisis Intervention Program to manage violence. The attitudinal scale that will be used in the study will be based on a Likert scale, which is often used as a form of summative scale . The design is formatted using a variety of Likert scales with statements that the respondent evaluates by expressing their general level of agreement or disagreement. The scales proposed for this study to assess respondents perceptions of the Crisis Prevention Institutes Nonviolent Crisis Intervention Program effectiveness will use a 5-point Likert design. The survey is anonymous and voluntary with no identifying information, though clarifying information such as gender, years of service, occupation, and years of education will be requested. The Likert-items for the survey targeted three general areas 1) training objectives and content, 2) method and training context, and 3) expediency and knowledge transfer. In the first category, 8 Likert-items refer to specific aspects and components in the training process. The second category contains 7 Likert-items that concerns applications of the training outside of the training event, as well as how it integrates with other training init iatives sponsored by the Colorado Mental Health Institute. The third and final category contains 6 Likert-items that are designed to explore employee attitudes regarding the training in terms of its relevance and usage in real-life situations. Table 4. shows the rating scale that is used consistently throughout the survey, and for each of the three described categories.Table 4. Rating Scale.12345Strongly AgreeAgree uncomplete Agree or DisagreeDisagreeStrongly DisagreeThe survey has been reviewed by a panel of experts (committee members), who offered recommendations to make the Likert-items more specific and measurable, and then was administered to a screening sample of five people comprised of subjects similar to those who will eventually participate in the survey for this study. The inclusion of the neutral uncomplete Agree or Disagree category was included to avoid forcing the respondents to consume a response. The numbers of choices on a 5-point scale will present an odd numbe r of choices, allowing respondents to remain neutral. The decision on whether or not to include a neutral category in a survey has been debated, with a decision either way potentially impacting the assessment results (Mogey, 1999). The participants in the screening/pilot sample will be excluded from the final kitten of respondents for the survey, which was designed to be completed no more than 10 proceedings of time. Some of the considerations in constructing the survey include respondents possibly being influenced by the way they have answered previous questions, in terms of establishing a pattern that they feel the need to break. In addition, some members may desire to take extreme options but instead temper their responses with more moderate ones. This can be sometimes a challenge in terms of test in a psychologically oriented environment, where participants are adept at finding and arguing dichotomous and often opposing viewpoints.Internal and External ValidityEstablishing th e reliability and validity of the survey instrument proposed for this research study is fundamental as it is created as opposed to a published instrument. Suskie (1996) describes a questionnaire or survey as reliable when it elicits consistent responses from the participants, and this can be accomplished by providin

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