Monday, April 8, 2019

Environmental Engineering Essay Example for Free

Environmental Engineering EssayIt involveswaste piss system precautionand duck soup taintcontrol, recycling,waste disposal, radiation syndrome protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, andpublic healthissues as good as a knowledge ofenvironmental engineering law. It is a related study of environmental acquaintance. important task of environmental engineers is to protect public health by protecting (from further debasement), preserving (the acquaint break of), and enhancing the environment.Some work of Environmental engineers Conducts hazardous-waste managementstudies to evaluate the signifi brookce of such hazards, advise on preaching and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. Design municipal water supply andindustrial wastewater tr swallowmentsystems. place environmental issues such as the effects ofacid pelting,global warming,ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution fromautomobile exhaustsandindustrial sources.Environ mental scienceis an interdisciplinaryacademic fieldthat integrates physical and biological sciences, (including only not limited to environmental science,Physics,Chemistry,Biology,Soil Science,Geology,Atmospheric ScienceandGeography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinaryapproach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental science came alive as a substantive, officious field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by the ff. ssues (a) the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze complex environmental problems. (b) the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation. (c) the ripening public awargonness of a need for action in totalressing environmental problems.Related areas of study environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human rel ationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. 2. environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for up(a) environmental quality. Components of Environmental Science Ecologyis the study of the interactions amidst organisms and their environment. Ecologists might investigate the relationship between a population of organisms and most physical characteristic of their environment, such as concentration of a chemic or they might investigate the interaction between a two populations of different organisms through some symbiotic or competitive relationship.For example, an interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system which is being impacted by one or more stressors might embarrass several related environmental science fields. In an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial development could impact certain species bywaterandair pollution,biologistswould describe the flora and fauna,chemistswould analyze the transport of water pollutants to the marsh ,physicistswould calculateair pollutionemissions andgeologistswould assist in understanding the marsh basiss and bay muds. . Atmospheric sciencesfocuses on the Earths atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its interrelation to early(a) systems. Atmospheric sciences can include studies ofmeteorology, third estatehouse gasphenomena,atmospheric dispersion modelingof airborne contaminants,34sound propagation phenomena related to racket pollution, and even strike pollution.Taking the example of theglobal warmingphenomena, physicists createcomputer modelsof atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine the inventory of atmospheric chemics and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions tocarbon dioxidefluxes, and specialists such asmeteorologistsandoceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics. 3. Environmental chemistryis the study of chemical alterations in the environment.Principal areas of stud y includesoil befoulmentandwater pollution. The topics of analysis include chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of chemicals (for example, evaporation of asolventcontaining lake to yield solvent as an air pollutant), and chemical effects upon biota. As an example study, consider the case of a leakingsolventtank which has entered the habitat soil of anendangered speciesof amphibian.As a method to resolve or understand the extent ofsoil contaminationand subsurface transport of solvent, a computer model would be implemented. Chemists would then characterize the molecular stick of the solvent to the specific soil type, and biologists would study the impacts upon soilarthropods, plants, and ultimately pond-dwelling organisms that are the nutriment of the endangered amphibian. 4. Geosciencesincludeenvironmental geology,environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the Earths crust.In some classification systems this can likewise includehydr ology, includingoceanography. As an example study of soilserosion, calculations would be made ofsurface runoffby soil scientists. fluvial geomorphologists would assist in examiningsediment transportin overland flow. Physicists would contribute by assessing the changes in light transmission in the receiving waters. Biologists would analyze subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna from increases in water turbidity. Ecology study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. starts as early as 300 BC with the Greek named Theophastus, his interest with the interrelatedness between organism and the live environment, live on his as the Father of Botany. Environment refers to the sum of all the outside(a) forces and conditions acting on an organism or community of organism. oekologie was coined by the german zoologist, Ernst Haeckel, comes from the greek word oikos, mean home or a place to live in. defines as the relationship of animals both to the organic as well as the inorganic environment, in the mid-1900s two group of botanist, one from the Europe and America, become interested in the study of plants communities, the Europeans concentrated on the composition, structure and distribution of plant communities, on the other(a) hand the Americans concentrate to the development of plant, eventually they become interested at the animals as well, and gave a great emphasis on inter-relationship of animals and plants.This become the birth of ecology as the formal field of study. British economist, doubting Thomas Malthus, gave special attention to population in the early 19th century, his the first one o recognized the conflict between expanding population and earths capability to supply it. scope of ecology, organism (eg. Proto-plasma, cell, tissue, organ, organ system), population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. Organism Levels of cheek of life (inside the organism) Protoplasma it makes up the accompaniment substance of the cell .Cell basic unit of life Tissue-group of cell performing specific functions Organ- group of tissue carrying a peculiar(a) functions Organ system group of organ doing s specific function. Levels of organization of life (inside the organism) Population group of organism of the same kind or species occupying a particular place at a particular time. Community a group of populations occupying a give area. Ecosystem basic unit of ecology, refers to the interaction between the organism and environment. It includes population, communities, habitat (the place where the organism lives) and the environment. eg. forest, grassland, river, etc. ) Biosphere domain of a function of life. It is the portion of the earth where in life on its any form existed. Components of ecosystem Biotic they are the living components of ecosystem consisting of plants, animals and bacteria. Abiotic they are the non living component that consist of substratum, light, rainfall, nutrients, soil, temperature, etc. Biotic Components Green plants known as the producers. They take prisoner the zero coming from the sun and together with the CO2 in the air and H2O converts this into food energy.They are called autotrophs (self nourishing), they manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis. There are also microscopic green plant called phytoplanktons, they give the green color to the bodies of water such as lake and rivers Animals Known as the consumers. discover other food sources to other plants and animals they are called heterotrophs. Three types of consumers Herbivores that eat plants only Carnivores animals that eat other animals. Omnivores- eat both plants and animals.Bacteria and Fungi They are called decomposers. They eat the dead bodies of plants and animals, where they get their energy and convert it to other nutrients back into the environment. They are popular called the janitor of the nature. Abiotic Components Soil the upper layer of the earths crust unnatural by plants and animals serves as the habitat and pool of nutrients for many organism. Humus dark decaying organic substance free-base in the soil. Physical characteristic of soil Color The color of the soils is make up ones mind by the element mystify in the soil.Soil color and element presesent Grey (lacks of iron) Brown red (rich in iron) Texture the texture of the soil affects the amount of water and nutrients the soil can hold. Texture of the soil Sandy (composed of coarse particles) corpse (consist of fine particles) Silt (composed of medium size particles. ) Loamy (mixture of clay, sand and silt) Moisture Water content of the soil. It is influence by factors such as Texture Amount of rainfall Slope of the land Underlying shake type. pH The concentration of hydrogen ions on the soil.The soil which contain a large amount of lime is alkaline and with large amount of granite id acidic. pH value raging from 1-6 is acidic and 8-14 are basic magic spell those with 7 reading is neutral type of soil. Structure Refers to the arrangement of its particle which build up larger amount of soil structure is called peds. The peds damage will result to the poor drainage of water to the soil. 2. Water Importance of water in ecosystem It comprise of a large percentage of the tissues of all living organism. Required by plants to support their non woody tissues.Used by the plants as a vessel of nutrients from the soil. It is abstracted by the plant and release in the environment which produces the cooling effect. Plant adaptation to water (Based on the tolerance of plant to water. ) * Hydropytes (Plants that train in water and waterlogged soils) * Halophytes (Plants that grow in saline environment. ) * Xerophytes (Plants that grow in dry or arid condition. 3. Temperature Affects the plant and cooled blooded animals by controlling their metabolism. Affect the water loss of the organism.Most organism function at temperature between 0 pointedness to 50 de gree centigrade.. 4. Wind An agent of pollination and seed dispersal. It also affects transpiration in the plants by causing faster evaporation with in their surroundings. Pathways of energy Energy It is needed by the organism for growth, maintenance and repair and for life. Organism come their energy by two ways Autotrophy (producing their own food) Heterotrophy (eating other organism) Food Chain Consist of the era of organism that eat other organism through which energy is transferred. Every food chain starts a producer and end with decomposers.Trophic levels of food chain First trophic ( producers) Second trophic (herbivores called radical consumers) Third trophic (carnivore that eat hervobores) 4th trophic (carnivores that eat carnivores) In food chain the energy transferred from one trophic level to another is decreasing. Food web Consist of several interlocking food chain. It is a transfer of energy involving several pathways. Nutrients cycle Classification of Nutrients Mac ronutrients those that are required by organism by large quantities. Ex. Oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen Micronutrient are needed by the organism by smaller amounts.Ex. Sulfur, potassium, iron, and phosphorus. Water Cycles Evaporation (from bodies of water) Respiration ( from animals) Transpiration (from the trees) Condensation (accumulation of all the vapors, transpiration and respiration) Precipitation (for rain) Runoff (water run from the higher grounds) deoxycytidine monophosphate and Oxygen cycle Carbon is mostly present in the environment by cabon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is present at It could be found at dead organism. Volcano eruption. Respiration of animals. Oxygen is abundant in plants transpiration, it is release in the air as a waste product and absorbed by animals. north Cycles Nitrogen constitutes 78% of air in the atmosphere. Plants used it as a nitrates, and nitrogen converted it by two process The action of lightning. Process of action by specialized organ ism such as legumes. Communities Community Group of different kinds of organism or species living together in a particular place. Worlds Major communities 1. Dessert Biome Bushes and shrubs for vegetation Sandy, dry and loose type of soil. Less than 10 cm of rain fall in a year. Lizards, snakes, eagles, owls, toads, insects and small

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