Monday, March 4, 2019

Liner Shipping

AN INTRODUCTION TO line drive SHIPPING vocation temperament AND SCOPE OF facing SHIPPING BUSINESS facing SHIPPING BUSINESS A truncated HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SHIPPING THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF LINER SERVICE THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAMP SERVICE TYPES OF LINER SERVICE OPERATORS THE wideness & NEED FOR LINER SERVICE LINER TRADE ROUTES A BRIEF HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SHIPPINGThe spirit of enquiry looking beyond the forests, mountains, deserts & oceans. The era of explorations European expeditions denudation of the Americas The Suez and Panama bumals and other jackpotals/waterways changed the range of embarkpingIndustrial Revolution Increase in tack Newer markets and opport building b cast awayies Large-scale merchant vessels lines solely became widespread in the nineteenth century, after the development of the long-neck clam in 1783. enormous Britain was the center of development of the send offping line. In 1819 the first steamship crossing of the Atlantic Ocean took place. By 1833 merchant marine lines had begun to operate steamships betwixt Britain and British Empire possessions such as India and Canada. Three major British shipping lines were founded in the 1830s The British and American Steam Navigation Company.The Great Western Steamship Company The Peninsular Steam Navigation Company.HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE1. evolution of Shipping as an industry that arose from mans quest for seek new frontiers and later on played a major spot in world trade.2. Growth of markets from local to neighbouring settlements / villages / towns/cities/countries and continents across the oceans in the eighteenth century. Sea furthering communities could be found all over the world, the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Norwegians, the British, the Dutch, the Portuguese, the qinese, the Indians and many more than.3. Discovery of new continents The Americas and routes to various countries. The major man- do alterations in the geo graphic landscape that change the world. The Panama canal connected the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans man the Suez canal connected the Mediterranean sea in Europe and the bolshy Sea in Asia.4. Industrial Revolution and the invention of the steam locomotive engine caused a major shift in the way ships operated jumper lead cater to steam powered. The trade routes moved from being guided by wind and ocean currents to routes chartered by man to countries and continents around the globe.5. The inter-dependence of people and their claim and the role of ship owners and merchandisers in the development of new markets overseas.6. The advent of throw up and liner Shipping Business as the demands of the merchandisers and trading community grew during the nineteenth and 20th to have regular renovation to destination of their choice that was dependable, reliable, hardened route and timeframe to meet the requirements of their overseas customer.Characteristics of liner Shipping t hrow away* vs ocean liner Shipping* Dictionary Meaning vagrant, homeless, vagabondTramp service is driven by demands of the merchant in political machinerying goods in great quantities to specified location, does not have a fixed schedule or tariff in the sense that the clog rates are negotiable per voyage, Whereas Liner Shipping is driven by demands of the merchant in carrying goods in smaller quantities, that is unitized or break-bulk, on a specified route, operating with a regular schedule, to pre-advertised ports of cry (out) and fixed tariff.Types of Liner overhaul Break-bulk lumber, wood-chips, liquids, grains, crude-oil, over dimension freight. ? Container or cellular water stratagem Containers Roll-on/Roll- reach vessel to carry fully built motor vehicles of all shapes & sizes ? LASH (lighter* on base ship) or Kangaroo ships, lighter transport ships ? Passenger/Luxury Cruise Liner ferrying people on work or leisure A lighter is a gearless barge or a small vesse l that can carry cargo along rivers waterways to the sea and then can be commited onto the mother vessel in the port.The Classification of serve up Pattern1. The Feeder service2. RTW or round-the-world3. The Pendulum Service4. Hub and Spoke5. End-to-endReview questions1. Explain the path of change the sea-borne trade has undergone to reach it present level. Also indicate the factors that influenced the growth of sea-borne trade.2. What is Tramp service?3. Identify the main characteristics of Liner Service4. Draw a comparision between Tramp and Liner Service5. Identify the various types of Liner Service6. How are the Liner Service pattern classified explain.THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAMP SERVICENo fixed schedule the ship calls at ports subject to inducement. Serves customers with expectant freightages Eg. Ore, coal steel, crude oil, nutrient grains, fertilizers full shiploads Freight rates are negotiable No obligation On a charter voyage, time or bareboatTHE MAIN CHARACT ERISTICS OF LINER SERVICEA fleet of ships sailing between pre-advertised port that call at the ports en-route to load/discharge cargo. Maintain a fixed schedule. put forward cargo space to customers irrespective of volume CY/FCL Full container OR CFS/LCL Less-than-container load Carry general cargo and/or unitized cargo in ISO containers A pre-deterimined Tariff bodily structure based on port-pair & commodity. Large organisation structure network of office/agents Specified Port rotation for example Bangkok-Laem Chabang-Ho Chi Minh City-Singapore- Chennai-SingaporeLaem Chabang-Bangkok Fixed scheduleBKK Sat/Sun LCB Mon/Mon VICT Wed/Wed big cat lai Wed/Thur SIN Fri/SatMAA Thur/Fri SIN Wed/ThursLCB Sat/SatBKK Sat/SunROLL-ON/ROLL-OFF LINER SERVICE HISTORY At first, wheeled vehicles carried as cargo on ocean going ships were treated like any other cargo. Automobiles had their accelerator tanks emptied and their batteries disconnected before being hoisted into the ships hold, where they were chocked and secured. This process was long-winded and difficult, vehicles were subject to damage, and could not be used for routine travel. Landing craft during World War II Post war, the idea was adopted for merchant ships and short ferry crossings.The first RoRo service crossing the English shift began from Dover (Dover is a town and major ferry port in the county of Kent, in South East England. ) It faces France across the narrowest part of the English note. TYPES of Roll on Roll off vessels ROPAX The acronym ROPAX (roll on/roll off passenger) describes a RORO A ferry is a form of transport, usually a boat or ship, used to carry passengers and their vehicles across a body of water. Ferries are likewise used to transport freight and even squeeze cars . vessel built for freight vehicle transport but as well with passenger accommodation.The ConRo vessel is a hybrid between a RORO and a container ship. A RoLo (roll-on lift-off) vessel is another hybrid vessel type w ith ramps serve vehicle decks but with other cargo decks accessible only by crane. Roll-on/roll-off (Roll on/Roll off) Ships were designed to carry wheeled cargo PCTC vestal car- common carriers or Pure Car /Truck Carriers While the characteristics of seagoing RORO car ferries have inherent risks, there are benefits to its seaworthiness. For example the car carrier Cougar Ace The Motor ship Cougar Ace is a Singapore-flagged roll-on/roll-off car carrier vessel.The Cougar Ace was built by Kanasashi Co. of Toyohashi, Aichi and launched in June 1993. listed 80 degrees to its port side in 2006 but did not sink, since its spirited enclosed sides prevented water from entering. Unlike in the shipping industry where cargo is thrifty by the metric tonne, RORO cargo is typically measured unit of LIM lanes in metres. This is calculated by multiplying cargo length in metres by its width in lanes (lane width differs from vessel to vessel and there are a number of industry standards). Aboard PCCs cargo capacity is measured in RT or RT 43 units which is based on a 1966 Toyota or by car equivalent units (CEU).THE ERA OF CONTAINERIZATIONAs the progress was made in term of unitization of the goods that is packaging the goods in a adapted manner for proper stowage and safe carriage during a shipment from one country to another the simple box, case, crate, cask or drums, pallets, skids and vans soft evolved the concept of containerization container made of steel or aluminum that would make manipulation of cargo easier. Definition Containerization is a method of distributing merchandise in a unitized form thereby permitting an intermodal transport system to be developed providing a possible combination of rail, road, canal and maritime transport.For as long as people have been sailing the oceans they have been trading with other countries. The slap-up empires of the world, from the Egyptians to the British Empire, were all built on ocean trade. As far back as 1792, boxes similar to modern containers emerged in England and these were transported with horse and butterball and later moved via rail. The U. S. government used containers during the Second World War.Modern container shipping began in 1956, when Malcolm McLean, a trucking entrepreneur from North Carolina, U. S. bought a steamship company with the idea of transporting entire truck trailers with their cargo still inside. discordant companies in the U. S. began to adopt containerisation. In 1966, the vessel Fairland owned by Sea-Land sailed from the U. S. to Rotterdam in the Netherlands with 256 containers. This was the first international voyage of a container ship. During the 1970s container shipping expand dramatically and ports were established in every continent in the world. This was the jump of the expansion that made container shipping the backbone of global trade.Transporting goods in large volumes makes it cheaper economies of scale improved and therefore the unit cost of the pr oducts became more competitive. Transporting goods by container ship is also better for the environment. It is estimated that on average a container ship emits around 40 times less CO2 than a large freight aircraft and three times less than a heavy truck. Container shipping is also estimated to be two and a half times more energy efficient than rail and 7 times more so than road. Container shipping is different from conventional shipping because it uses containers of various sizes 20 invertebrate foot (6. 9 m), 40 foot (12. 18 m) , 45 foot (13. 7 m), 48 foot (14. 6 m), and 53 foot (16. 15 m) to load, transport, and exonerate goods DEVELOPMENT OF SUITABLE INFRASTRUCTURE The introduction of containers in shipping also saw the development of infrastructure at the port and the container yards that was required to compensate the containers safely with the cargo. A container crane (also container handling gantry crane, ship-to-shore crane ) is a design of large dockside gantry cranes found at container end points for loading and drop off intermodal containers from container ships.The first use of a container crane was constructed by Paceco Corp. for Matson (a marine terminal in Alameda, CA) in the early 1960s and was called a Portainer. Container cranes consistent of a supporting framework that can traverse the length of a quay or yard, and a moving platform called a spreader. The spreader can be lowered down on top of a container and locks on to the containers four locking points (corner castings), using a twist lock mechanism. Cranes normally transport a single container at once, however close to newer cranes have the capability to up pick upto four 20 containers at once.A fully maneuverable version not using rails is a rubber tyred gantry crane Containers are generally furbish upred to in terms of TEU Twenty foot equivalent while the standard size of containers that go in shipping are for further details the students may refer to the container specifica tions distributed CONTAINER TYPES DRY FREIGHT CONTAINERS INSULATED CONTAINERS REFRIGERATED CONTAINERS BULK CONTAINERS VENTILATED CONTAINERS FLAT twitch & PLATFORM CONTAINERS OPEN-TOP CONTAINERS TANKS CONTAINERS SEA CELL CONTAINERS MILITARY CONTAINERS SWAPBODIES HANGER CONTAINERS

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